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Author Topic: Aspden's Device  (Read 15041 times)
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You simply cannot get any extra juice out of an inductor.

MileHigh

I would pretty much agree with this. In fact years ago I built a special flyback system to see if any variation in materials could harvest some extra energy from the environment,

It seem Harold Aspden has made claims of a specially constructed inductor whose laminations were made of alternating layers of thermoelectric materials.

His claim was that the inductor would extract some ambient heat and turn it into a bit of extra energy on each flyback pulse, thus the inductor would begin to cool.

Of course this can be done with current circulating in a loop between two thermoelement junctions, the basis of Peltier modules. This requires a source and sink. A solid state very inefficient heat pump.

However the direct conversion of ambient heat to electricity without a sink is intriguing. Whether this specially constructed inductor really worked is difficult to determine from Aspden's ESR reports.

I have a few thousand pounds of various types of thermocouple wire, but lack the machinery to form it into laminations. Maybe there is another way.

Does anyone else see this as a possibly operating device? It tickles my imagination.

Cheers...ION



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It seem Harold Aspden has made claims of a specially constructed inductor whose laminations were made of alternating layers of thermoelectric materials.

His claim was that the inductor would extract some ambient heat and turn it into a bit of extra energy on each flyback pulse, thus the inductor would begin to cool.

Of course this can be done with current circulating in a loop between two thermoelement junctions, the basis of Peltier modules. This requires a source and sink. A solid state very inefficient heat pump.

However the direct conversion of ambient heat to electricity without a sink is intriguing. Whether this specially constructed inductor really worked is difficult to determine from Aspden's ESR reports.


http://www.aspden.org/reports/Es3/esr3.pdf

Strachan/Aspden Article: http://www.overunityresearch.com/index.php?topic=48.msg355#msg355

EDIT:

Strachan's Patent: GB 2,275,128

« Last Edit: 2010-01-25, 18:55:01 by Grumpy »
   
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Grumpy

Thanks for posting those links....my doorbell rang before I had the chance to do it....you are fast.

There is another article that I am having difficulty finding, but I believe it was published in Nexus over 10 years ago concerning Aspdens inductor design.

There was also an interesting article in Infinite Energy published by the late Eugene Mallove. This article described the limiting factors in present Peltier module construction, namely the heat transfer through the thermoelements, and joule losses.

It went on to state that the next leap in these devices would be room temperature superconducting ceramic based thermoelements that would provide a high degree of thermal insulation between source and sink while still developing a large EMF.

Reportedly, such a high efficiency device would put the nail in the coffin of the internal combustion engine by providing Thermal to electric conversion efficiencies of greater than 35%.

A good read if you can find the article.....I'm sure Grumpy can.

Thanks again...ION


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searching...

Thermoelectric devices hinge on the answer to this question:

What is heat?

hmm - grab this one:

http://www.newenergytimes.com/v2/archives/fic/N/N199409s.PDF

http://www.infinite-energy.com/images/pdfs/index.pdf

http://www.infinite-energy.com/images/pdfs/samplearticle.pdf

----

I'll have to go back the link and try to find it that way.
   
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good catch Grumpy...you the man

But we've derailed the thread so maybe Poynt can move the last few posts to the appropriate "Heat to electricity" topic.


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Harold Aspden's Patent:

US 5734122

EDIT:
http://www.aetherscience.org/www-energyscience-org-uk/notes/rn9702.htm

EDIT2:

I think this is the issue.  It has a "thermoelectric conversion" brief.

http://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue11/index.html


EDIT 3:
try this one - it mentions osme interesting thermoelectric devices
http://www.imperium-alpha.de/filedata/ColdFusionAndTheFuture.pdf

« Last Edit: 2010-01-25, 23:19:24 by Grumpy »
   

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this makes it clearer:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nernst_effect

page 6 has a diagram
http://cm.physics.tamu.edu/seminars/I_Ussishkin_12_7_04.pdf

it is interesting that this is accomplished without motion.  The possibly similar Wilson Effect requires that the dielectric be moving.

Edit:
A good definition:
The Nernst effect is the transverse voltage generated by a longitudinal thermal gradient in the presence of a magnetic field.

hmm - longitudinal thermal gradient...

How would you make thermal shocks across the material?

Perhaps pulsing the magnetic field would suffice as well...

Me thinks there is something here...

   
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While I was searching for Nitrogen burning, I found many answer that it is inert and will not burn.  However, I found one that said it could burn.

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_temperature_does_nitrogen_gas_burn

"Nitrogen burns to form Nitrogen Dioxide at about 2200F. It is an exothermic reaction, meaning it will produce heat sufficient to sustain itself if the heat is confined, for example in an internal combustion engine."

It also mentioned on wiki that it can release oxygen in an endothermic reaction.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_dioxide

"The chemistry of nitrogen dioxide has been investigated extensively. At 150 °C, NO2 decomposes with release of oxygen via an endothermic process (ΔH = 114 kJ/mol):

    2 NO2 → 2 NO + O2 "


It reminds me of a person who said something about burning nitrogen.  Although he probably just trying to make fertilizer, but it sounds like he treating the gas as fuel.

"Long ago this idea took a powerful hold on the imagination of scientific men, but an efficient means for accomplishing this result could not be devised.  The problem was rendered extremely difficult by the extraordinary inertness of the nitrogen, which refuses to combine even with oxygen.  But here electricity comes to our aid: the dormant affinities of the element are awakened by an electric current of the proper quality.  As a lump of coal which has been in contact with oxygen for centuries without burning will combine with it when once ignited, so nitrogen, excited by electricity, will burn.  I did not succeed, however, in producing electrical discharges exciting very effectively the atmospheric nitrogen until a comparatively recent date, although I showed, in May, 1891, in a scientific lecture, a novel form of discharge or electrical flame named "St. Elmo's hotfire," which, besides being capable of generating ozone in abundance, also possessed, as I pointed out on that occasion, distinctly the quality of exciting chemical affinities.  This discharge or flame was then only three or four inches long, its chemical action was likewise very feeble, and consequently the process of oxidation of nitrogen was wasteful.  How to intensify this action was the question.  Evidently electric currents of a peculiar kind had to be produced in order to render the process of nitrogen combustion more efficient.

The first advance was made in ascertaining that the chemical activity of the discharge was very considerably increased by using currents of extremely high frequency or rate of vibration.  This was an important improvement, but practical considerations soon set a definite limit to the progress in this direction.  Next, the effects of the electrical pressure of the current impulses, of their wave-form and other characteristic features, were investigated.  Then the influence of the atmospheric pressure and temperature and of the presence of water and other bodies was studied, and thus the best conditions for causing the most intense chemical action of the discharge and securing the highest efficiency of the process were gradually ascertained.  Naturally, the improvements were not quick in coming; still, little by little, I advanced.  The flame grew larger and larger, and its oxidizing action grew more intense.  From an insignificant brush-discharge a few inches long it developed into a marvelous electrical phenomenon, a roaring blaze, devouring the nitrogen of the atmosphere and measuring sixty or seventy feet across.  Thus slowly, almost imperceptibly, possibility became accomplishment.  All is not yet done, by any means, but to what a degree my efforts have been rewarded an idea may be gained from an inspection of Fig. 1 (p. 176), which, with its title, is self explanatory.  The flame-like discharge visible is produced by the intanse electrical oscillations which pass through the coil shown, and violently agitate the electrified molecules of the air.  By this means a strong affinity is created between the two normally indifferent constituents of the atmosphere, and they combine readily, even if no further provision is made for intensifying the chemical action of the discharge.  In the manufacture of nitrogen compounds by this method, of course, every possible means bearing upon the intensity of this action and the efficiency of the process will be taken advantage of, and, besides, special arrangements will be provided for the fixation of the compounds formed, as they are generally unstable, the nitrogen becoming again inert after a little lapse of time.  Steam is a simple and effective means for fixing permanently the compounds.  The result illustrated makes it practicable to oxidize the atmospheric nitrogen in unlimited quantities, merely by the use of cheap mechanical power and simple electrical apparatus.  In this manner many compounds of nitrogen may be manufactured all over the world, at a small cost, and in any desired amount, and by means of these compounds the soil can be fertilized and its productiveness indefinitely increased.  An abundance of cheap and healthful food, not artificial, but such as we are accustomed to, may thus be obtained.  This new and inexhaustible source of food-supply will be of incalculable benefit to mankind, for it will enormously contribute to the increase of the human mass, and thus add immensely to human energy.  Soon, I hope, the world will see the beginning of an industry which, in time to come, will, I believe, be in importance next to that if iron. "
   

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And so it did, at least for a time.  Where
electricity was abundant and cheap the
industrial production of Nitric Oxide and
in turn Nitric Acid or mineral nitrates did
flourish.  At Niagara Falls for a few years
until Norway became the principal supplier
of synthetic nitrates, particularly Norwegian
Saltpeter (Calcium Nitrate).

Now the process of "burning" ammonia in
the presence of suitable catalysts has supplanted
the production of Nitric Oxide by electrical discharge
although many experimenters construct their own
small electrical discharge units for producing small
quantities of Nitric Oxide and Nitrogen Dioxide in
order to synthesize Nitric Acid or mineral nitrates.

Electrochemistry is great fun.


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Hi ION,

I was intrigued to read a discussion of the Aspden-Strachan (A-S) device here. I've been interested in thermoelectricity for about a decade and did an extremely extensive patent search over that time. I found many surprises, and perhaps some solutions as to how to make thermoelectric devices with very high efficiency. I'm not a builder but a database researcher, so these concepts have lain fallow in my files, but perhaps this will change now.
There is literally too much to say.
The major issue with increasing the efficiency of thermocouples is the reduction of heat conduction while maintaining electrical conduction. The two tend to go together, so the good electrical conductor is also a good heat conductor. Modern approaches to raising the dismal efficiency of thermoelectric generators usually work in the area of materials science, focusing on building nano structures that block phonons (heat vibrations) while allowing current to flow. But what I found in my research was that it was possible to use electronic and geometric/ structural means to do the same thing with already available resources.
The methods used by various inventors include:
--structuring the contact area of the thermocouple elements so that electrical resistance remains low while heat resistance increases.
--creating a micro gap between the elements and using arc, capacitive, or inductive coupling to connect them (which we see in A-S)
--including the thermo elements into an AC circuit so that reactance can be used to increase the thermoelectric voltage, thus reducing heat losses (which we may see in A-S)
--and additional more esoteric methods, involving magnetic fields, thermocouple motion, semiconductor diffusion currents, etc. etc.
Using these methods a variety of inventors have reported thermoelectric generators with operation approaching Carnot efficiency. In fact, if heat conduction is completely eliminated, then the heat source is not exhausted, and a form of overunity results.
The first patent I want to present uses a purely electronic method of controlling the thermocouple characteristics, although the inventor also uses an arc for even greater efficiency. I chose it because it could be tested by anyone with some thermocouples and some basic electronics and doesn't require any arcs, sparks or gaps to see the basic effect.
It comes from Reinhard Dahlberg, who invented it while working at Siemens in the 1970s. There are corporate reasons why this device was not developed further that I won't go into here. Suffice it to say that Dahlberg was a noted inventor with more than 60 patents to his name.
This patent was 'lost' in the sense that it has not been referenced since that time.
Dahlberg uses standard BiTe semiconductor thermoelectric elements in his patent, although purely metallic ones could be used as well. He starts with an AC source and then routes the AC through the thermo elements using switches, so that the thermoelectric voltage is added to that of the AC signal. Then by using a capacitive reactance, he is able to control the current so that a much higher efficiency results. I see this as similar to the methods used in power lines that step up to high voltage so that line losses are reduced. In this case, the 'line' is the actual thermoelectric element. Converting the current into a voltage essentially 'inside' the element reduces the IR^2 losses.
The basic circuit is shown in Fig. 1. The operating principle is described on pg. 11 under the heading Example 1. (He gives many examples of how to use his device to improve the efficiency of other energy converters, but let's focus just on the thermoelectric part for now). At the bottom right of pg. 12 he discusses the use of sparks or arcs to interrupt the heat flow, a theme which will be carried on in other patents.
I'll be glad to explain this patent in more detail but the portions I've mentioned are clear enough, I think.

orthofield



   
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Hi Orthofield

Thanks for the interesting patent. It will take me a while to digest it in it;s entirety, but I think I get the basic concepts.

A long while ago, I was considering utilizing a HV "corona" between insulated thermo elements, but never tried it.

I have a good stock of thermocouple wire, including individual bare  and  insulated thermo elements of light and heavy gauge.

We will have to discuss this further.

Regards
ION
« Last Edit: 2015-02-18, 14:53:21 by ION »


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Hi Ion,

Should I wait a while before posting the next patent, so you have time to study Dahlberg?

The corona idea would probably work, from what I've seen in the lit. The next patent I will post is from Baltzar Von Platen, and claims violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a thermoelectric generator by using an arc in gas or vacuum.

orthofield
   
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Hi Ion,

Should I wait a while before posting the next patent, so you have time to study Dahlberg?

The corona idea would probably work, from what I've seen in the lit. The next patent I will post is from Baltzar Von Platen, and claims violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a thermoelectric generator by using an arc in gas or vacuum.

orthofield

Please post whatever you can. I have studied the first patent and have many questions best cleared by a phone communication. I will study as time permits.

Regards, ION


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Hi ION,

I will post Von Platen as soon as I've finished a machine translation from the French. I had forgotten that I only translated the key portion before. We can talk on the phone on any weekday-- I am semi-retired.

orthofield
   
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