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Author Topic: Supersonic Pulsometer  (Read 7828 times)

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This is the design for the Supersonic Inline Pulsometer. The Mk2 is powered by an AC induction heater to provide a safe test bed platform for analysing system component efficiency. There are many other Mk's providing modular adaptability for utilising any fuel capable of providing a heat source.

Please read these links and understand how electrical power and heat is generated:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combined_heat_and_power

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_engine

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_pump

http://www.baxi.co.uk/products/2137/

A static head of steam pressure can be generated by heating water in a confined space, this gas pressure is capable of doing work. When released through a piston chamber dump valve Power is maximised due to Time = 0 principles. The resultant fluid pressure wave can be shaped via a De Laval nozzle to reach supersonic speeds, creating a shockwave laminar flow. The air layer is compressed, releasing it's stored energy to the environment and also acts as an insulating layer preventing the steam from condensing. Water is driven out through the outlet, and when the steam reaches the mixer a turbulent flow develops, condensing the steam as it contacts the water and gives up it's latent heat which is transferred. A relative negative pressure vacuum develops, air and water are drawn into the chamber under atmospheric pressure and the system resets for the next cycle.

The system is completely self governed using pressure differentials, no electronics whatsoever. The pumped water is stored in the gravitational field creating a gravitational potential, this potential can be exploited via a flow control valve which feeds a nozzle assembly. The resultant water jet spins a Turgo turbine which powers a permanent magnet alternator. Electricity is now being generated with the frequency determined by the RPM of the generator. A 50/60 Hz frequency being required to run standard household electronic devices, alternatively a DC output to a battery bank can run via an inverter to provide AC.

The thermal energy in the water flow can be extracted via a heat exchanger, providing low grade heat for water (via a thermal store) and space heating (via a heat exchanger plate to your existing central heating radiator system).

Electricity supply, central heating and hot water are now provided for your home.

Water distillation is also catered for creating a potable water supply that can be drunk to sustain life.

As the system is multi fuel capable you can unplug form the electricity grid, unplug from the gas grid and become completely independent, alternatively you can generate electricity and then feed it back into the grid for an income.

The Turbine and PMA both operate at approximately 90% efficiency, and due to the characteristics of the air heat pump a thermal COP > 1 is achievable. If the Pulsometer can operate at 90% efficiency which I fully expect due to the design consideration for maximising Power and shaping the pressure wave, we are looking at a total system efficiency of 90%.

Have Fun!

Rob  O0
« Last Edit: 2013-04-14, 11:49:04 by evolvingape »


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Different technologies being explored for Combined Heat and Power Generation:

http://www.baxi.co.uk/products/combined-heat-and-power-systems-explained/

http://auto.howstuffworks.com/stirling-engine1.htm

What I have designed is different and is more accurately described as Combined Power and Heat Generation. I have dedicated 100% of the fuel heat source to the Power cycle, and then used the condensing cycle to reset the system and recover 100% of the latent heat in the Heat cycle. We will not require 100% recovery in the Heat cycle though, as domestic hot water is around 50C at the tap to prevent scolding and the radiator system runs at about 65-70C to prevent burns, this is Specific Heat. Waste heat from the Power cycle is more than adequate to achieve these goals. This leaves us with a minimum 30C temperature potential difference before phase change at 100C, and if necessary a cold sink is provided from the mains cold water supply, supplied at pressure by the water company.

Rob  O0



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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   
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Rob:

Would it be possible to replace one of the work pistons with a magnet and let it's motion generate electricity directly with a coil wrapped around the casing.

Maybe you already said this somewhere. I'm looking for a direct means rather than pumping water uphill. There are probably many ways to do this.


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Rob:

Would it be possible to replace one of the work pistons with a magnet and let it's motion generate electricity directly with a coil wrapped around the casing.

Maybe you already said this somewhere. I'm looking for a direct means rather than pumping water uphill. There are probably many ways to do this.

Excellent question!

Yes it is perfectly possible, in fact already planned for. The springs in the design can be replaced with a combination of axially magnetised ring magnets and cylinder magnets. The hole in the centre of the ring allows fluid flow, and the cylinder magnet can simply be secured into a hole drilled into the piston, or become the piston itself. However, when it comes to maximising Power you don't want to be slowing the trigger pistons down with magnetically induced drag from the interaction with the coil, in fact you want to be speeding them up. However, for a primary piston a large cylindrical magnet could be used, tolerances will determine fluid bleed around the annular gap. Also as Force = Pressure x Area it follows that a piston with a larger diameter has a larger area for the pressure to act on, and therefore generates a larger force for the same time period. This means that as the Pulsometer gets bigger, it gets better.

http://www.ashfield-springs.com/compression-springs-online.php

https://www.hkcm.de/forcer.php?dna=1&sort=f

http://www.calculatoredge.com/new/pres.htm

You can also integrate traditional coil springs with magnet springs in the same space and exploit the potential difference of the governing laws. A traditional spring has a set linear rate measured in N/mm, a magnet has a different governing law where Force varies drastically with Distance.

The simplicity of the Supersonic Inline Pulsometer design hides the complexity of the physics I have built into it, for example, a primary magnetic piston as you have suggested is perfectly compatible with a steam powered Kundel motor which directly translates to rotary moment without a turbine...  ;)

http://www.kundelmagnetics.com/

http://pages.videotron.com/ceber/on_the_inverse_cube_magnetostatic_interaction.pdf

Rob   8)
« Last Edit: 2013-04-14, 18:21:13 by evolvingape »


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Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Rob,

This work is extremely fascinating but I have a question.

On the Kundel Magnetics link I saw a video that states the current isn't effected by load.
What I believe I was watching was a motor of the constant torque type powered by a current limited power supply.
As the commutation slows the current would appear to drop on those displays and the current being limited by the supply would be seen as a decrease in output voltage.

Do you know the operating specs of that supply and if there is another video showing a more consistent load or a nice fat capacitor to soften the changes to the supply?

Thanks,

John


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"As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality." - Einstein

"What we observe is not nature itself, but nature exposed to our method of questioning." - Werner Heisenberg
   

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Hi John,

Another excellent question!

I have not worked on Kundel motor concepts for quite a few years now, it was only ION's question that caused me to mention it as it is not the focus of my research, however it is a viable option...

I am not a big fan of magnet motors in general as they have little Torque to speak of, and I am all about the Torque (haha pun intended!), however that does not mean I ignore them.

In order to answer your question I will have to see what videos are available now as opposed to the early videos (memory permitting) and get back to you.

The Kundel motor when it first became known was interesting, but as it runs on a linear voice coil (electricity) and outputs to a rotary generator (electricity) or other attachment (fan load) there was not much interest as it was obviously COP<1.

It caught my eye because I need a simple linear to rotary converter and it fit the bill, however, when I studied it high temperature magnets capable of enduring steam temps were not available so it got put on the back burner. Magnets in excess of 500C operating temperatures are available now and so it becomes a simple viable option for a steam powered linear reciprocator to rotary generator converter. However magnets act as a slip clutch when Load exceeds Torque, something to think about, smart load controller may be needed for variable loads.

I will look into your question and get back to you, but remember electronics is not my field, maybe Poynt99 could answer your question in a more timely manner? he is much more knowledgeable in this area than I am.

Thanks,

Rob  :)

Just watched the video your talking about John, The motor shown there is the V2.0 which is not the motor that I saw years ago but the behaviour if I remember correctly is the same. The V1.0 is the same, the original. Seems to me there is a V1.5 video missing but the results are the same. The only disturbing thing for me is the comments on the V2.0 video, 3 years ago really ? Jeez... I am getting old!

Your comments are accurate regarding the bench supply current limiting, looks like a standard 3 Amp bench supply to me, as Watts = Volts x Amps a regulated limited A supply would show as a change in V.

In regards to the Pulsometer, it is important to understand that you will not achieve a fast reciprocal motion like a voice coil, but you will achieve a large Power in a single pulse. So the Pulsometer is not a motor, it is a pump, a very powerful pump. A generator similar to a wind power generator with many phases at a slow RPM is what will be needed, not a 3 phase at high RPM like a standard PMA. DC battery bank will not require RPM frequency control and then run through an inverter for AC is my advice.

Hope that helps,

Rob  O0
« Last Edit: 2013-04-14, 19:36:09 by evolvingape »


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Here is an early video of the Mk 1 which explains the operating principles and theory behind Pulsometer operation:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZyvJdjVGY8

Here is a breakdown of the Snapvalve Governer I designed for this system:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VuDeGMuqKmA

You have the Mk 2 design which is superior to the Mk 1 and now you know how to build the Snapvalve. All 3 of the valves in the Mk 2 can be built in a very similar way to the Snapvalve. The safety valve is a Snapvalve which you can change to a slightly higher pressure than the Governer by increasing spring strength or by altering the face area exposed to pressure in the steam chamber. The Piston Dump Valve can also be built the same way, if you have paid attention to what I have told you over the last few years you will know how to sleeve pipe and tube inside BSP fittings to achieve the Pulsometer design.

The last thing you need to do is make the De Laval sleeve for subsonic to supersonic conversion. Here is the part that you need for working with 1/2 and 3/4 BSP dimensions:

http://www.studsandspikes.com/buy/spike-giant-2-3-4-inch-tree-black-al-single.html?osCsid=f998a47f2cd3cfb999e0d2c6a52ea917

Clamp the spike, drill through centre bore to remove tip of spike and be able to sleeve around a tube, clamp through centre bore and turn in a drill press to swage with sandpaper to create shape forming the compression curve. Drill the radial port holes in the correct place as per drawing.

Have fun!

Rob :)
« Last Edit: 2013-05-11, 13:14:32 by evolvingape »


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Hi Rob

Thank you for your excellent tutorial video's.

Will you be actually testing a valve assembly in the near future? I look forward to your results with great interest, but cannot replicate at this time, unfortunately. Hopefully in the future this will change.

One thought: the use of aluminum may present corrosion problems, but could be ok for short term testing.

Dissimilar metals can be problematic. An all brass or all SS would be best, I'm sure we may agree.

Regards....ION


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Hi ION,

Your welcome.

At some point I will reach the testing stage on this particular Mk but at the moment I have no access to my workshop which is slowing things up greatly. When that situation  changes I will let you know, your on the kit list so replication if you choose will be free.

Your right about the dissimilar metal corrosion and I almost mentioned it in the previous post. The aluminium was chosen for it's low weight creating a faster acceleration of the piston compared to brass or SS, it is also easy to work with and cheap. Use Alocrom 1200 for treating aluminium which will help with the corrosion issue:

http://henk0008.home.xs4all.nl/Alodine/ALOCROM%201200.pdf

This is only for short term testing, ideally moving to a suitable plastic in the future. Something like PEEK rod might work well:

http://www.bearingboys.co.uk/PEEK_-2575-c

Rob :)
« Last Edit: 2013-05-11, 18:24:21 by evolvingape »


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Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   
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Hi Rob

I would be very pleased to test a unit for you, make a video for you and report all test data to you in return, I'm sure PhysicsProf would be willing to do the same.

Cheers, ION


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"Secrecy, secret societies and secret groups have always been repugnant to a free and open society"......John F Kennedy
   

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Hi ION,

Yeah that's cool with me, PhysicsProf knows he is getting a test kit I told him a while back. Unfortunately life got in the way and slowed my progress down by months or we would be testing those devices right now.

I won't be doing extensive testing on this version myself, as soon as it is functioning correctly and the kit's shipped out I will begin work on the 2" BSP version which will pack much more of a punch!

Rob :)


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   
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