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Author Topic: hhop  (Read 47855 times)

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If 1 hhop can be definitively defined as energy extracted from unit volume space, it is a stable baseline.

Energy Currency

http://www.theperfectcurrency.org/main-energy-currency/energy-currency

Towards a Perfect Currency

Environmentalists measure in real physical units, not monetary units. Money was developed to facilitate the trade of disparate real goods across a broad range of distances where direct exchange of goods was impractical. But money has many shortcomings in representing the full real wealth creation process and assets especially over time. Environmentalists have waited patiently for the commercial economics side of the real wealth creation process to develop monetary measurements which will capture the stocks and flows of environmental processes and non-renewable resource assets.
 
Without such common measurements, no broad based and unified initiatives on our planets many environmental challenges can easily take place. There will continue to be strong resistance from the commercial economics sector to any environmental sector efforts to make radical policy changes based on factors which do not show up in their monetary based accounting system.
 
If we wait for commercial economists to develop a unit of measure which clearly represents all processes, we will wait in vain as it is not in the interests of the finance sector to change. It is up to the science community to provide a monetary basis which will adequately represent both human and natural processes.
 
Fortunately there is now an opportunity to combine the real wealth creation sectors demand for a representative currency with the need of the commercial economics sector to change the currency used as the basis for international trade.
 
As the international standard of commerce, the American dollar has had its day.
 
The proposal by Zhou Xiaochuan, governor of China’s central bank, in March 2009, to establish an international financial reserve currency based on a basket of national currencies is only the start of the process to replace the US dollar as the medium of trade and finance.
 
But a basket based currency, even if it is more stable, also adds more complexity. It is still based on printed money valuations and incorporates all of the other weaknesses inherent in currencies which are not hard asset based.
 
Even though the Chinese proposal was widely rejected, the need for a stable international trading currency is clear and is the subject of ongoing discussion. But why settle for another fabricated currency? The opportunity exists to advance to a real and stable standard.
 
Upon which bedrock can an upgraded currency be based to facilitate accurate valuations, stability, fluidity to represent any scale of asset or transaction and offer resistance to speculation? Gold is limited by scarcity and scalability. Although it can dampen the gyrations of national currencies, it doesn’t represent in and of itself, the real wealth creation process.
 
There is only one commodity which is universally produced and consumed with both the scale and resolution to represent the full scope of any human endeavour. We already measure it in tremendous detail and it is central to every economy and process.
 
Energy based currency would represent real wealth creation potential and would not be subject to the shifting valuation issues to which every national currency is prone. Energy represents the value of work already done as well as the potential of work which can be done.
 
Some 800 years ago, the Mongols avoided inflationary pressures on their currency by performing inventories of their assets and matching the money supply to it. The Mongol empire did not suffer from the boom and bust cycle generated by the currency inflation which has plagued other monetary economies. Energy based currency would eliminate this cycle by representing constant real product and illuminating actual input costs.
 
Energy underwrites all commercial and environmental activity. It is the most widely measured, consumed and produced commodity on the planet. In contrast to the gold producing club, every nation produces energy from a wide variety of sources.
 
Energy currency? Fine. But which units should be used? A barrel of oil in raw energy numbers, contains 5.9 million btus, 1729 kilowatt hours, 6.2 billion joules or 1.49 billion calories. Awkward, to say the least. Currently a US dollar (at $50/bbl of oil) translates to about 120,000 btus, 35kw hours, 120 million joules and 30 million calories. Kilowatt hours is the best known and the most widely used measurement.
 
The closest thing to being a round number while having roughly the same magnitude as the current US dollar would be 100,000 btus or 100 million joules. Will we settle on “beatees”, “julies” or “watties” as the base currency unit?
 
Scientists would help monetary experts decide. That would be a new partnership. The first of many paradigm shifts necessary in the integration of real world physical accounting and the representation of commercial economic activity.
 
A kilowatt hour (or BTU, joule, calorie) is the same in Canada as it is in Kazakstan. It represents the same potential now as it would have centuries ago or will centuries into the future. As a scientific unit of measure, there will be no speculation about what a kilowatt will be worth in 10 years.
 
“Speculating”, “hedging”, “converting”, “runs against” - these would be superfluous activities of the past. Energy currency is elemental, timeless and universal; three qualities which arbitrary currencies or other commodity based currencies do not possess.
 
In moving to energy based currency, we will have made a huge step forward in stabilizing and rationalizing the economic process at every level. And when the technology is ready in 30 or 300 years, we can step easily from energy based currency to energy actually being the currency.
 
If energy storage technology can be developed to the point at which several thousand kilowatt hours can (safely) be carried on something the size of a credit card, then we will have developed the perfect currency.
 
Commodities, services and goods will always fluctuate in relation to energy but those fluctuations would be no longer be speculatively driven on the monetary side - they would be real cost and real demand driven. And there would never be a stampede away from energy. To what? Time?
 
Our current national policy focus on monetary flows is one of the prime reasons for the disconnect between policy makers and environmentalists. The GDP/monetary metric simply does not represent the physical processes or the assets of the real world which environmentalists see as essential, uncounted and rapidly degrading.
 
Energy currency very readily yields energy accounting which can provide a more comprehensive description of real output and resource consumption. Compared to monetary analysis, it is a 3D catscan for programs associated with alternative energy and carbon emissions. These issues need energy accounting to avoid negative sum game red-herrings like corn ethanol at northern latitudes which can survive only in the fog of our current monetary system.
 
In contrast to adopting energy currency, the process of dumping the US dollar in favour of a spectrum of other national currencies is a political minefield loaded with huge implications for the many players.
 
No matter who champions it, no one nation will own energy based money. It will be the first truly international, non-political currency base. No nation will be able to manipulate it to avoid the consequences of its own economic mis-steps or to beggar its neighbours.
 
The recent Chinese efforts to promote the creation of a new standard for international financial reserves have not produced results although the reasons for the proposal remain obvious and valid. A move to energy based currency offers a graceful and non-political avenue of monetary reform as a logical step forward not an abandonment of a failure.
 
Despite the rejection of Mr. Zhou’s initiative, the ball is still in his court and will remain there until a successor to the US dollar is found.
 
In the face of rapidly deteriorating environmental conditions as well as the necessity of retooling international finance, change must come to our monetary system. Conversion to an energy standard will take full advantage of this opportunity.
 
Energy Currency has all of the positive attributes of arbitrary money without many of the large problems. It opens the possibility of addressing environmental problems in a comprehensive fashion - something that baseless currencies cannot do.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Everyman decries immorality
Should You Invest in Bitcoin?

http://money.usnews.com/money/personal-finance/articles/2013/05/01/should-you-invest-in-bitcoin

Is this digital currency the wave of the future, or a craze to avoid?

If you get wistful imagining the American penny discontinued, a topic that makes the rounds every once in a while, imagine the thought of getting rid of the penny, nickel, quarter, dollar and the rest of American currency—and using bitcoins instead.

Bitcoins have been around for a few years, but there has been buzz in the mainstream media lately due to the digital currency recently both shooting up and plummeting in value.

It can be hard to comprehend at first, in part because Bitcoin, in upper case, refers to the software code that makes the digital currency and the network that distributes it, and bitcoins, in lowercase, refer to the currency itself. Then there's simply grasping the concept: Although bitcoins have a logo that looks like a coin, you will never actually hold one in your hand. Still, with debit and credit cards and online and mobile banking, a consumer these days could theoretically go weeks, months or perhaps years, if they never tip, without touching actual money.

Some people think bitcoins are the wave of the future, a digital form of money that could someday be a universal form of money that replaces the dollar, euro, yen, rupee and onward along the international currency chain. "If even modestly successful, Bitcoin could wind up being the tipping point of a sea change regarding how we are paid and how we pay for things," says Thomas Way, a computing sciences professor at Villanova University in Villanova, Pa.

Others think its future will fall more along the lines of the recent housing bubble, or even the Beanie Babies craze of the 1990s, when some people bought hundreds and thousands of the stuffed toys, planning to sell them one day to fund their retirement or kids' college education.

"People shouldn't invest in Bitcoin. And I think writing about Bitcoin will cause people to lose more money than if the media simply ignore it," says Peter Cohan, who teaches business strategy at Babson College in Wellesley, Mass., and has a background in management consulting and venture capital.

Bitcoin was created in 2009 as a software code project, with the goal to verify and safeguard financial transactions without the assistance of a centralized bank or government treasury. These digital dollars are "mined," as the lingo goes, involving a complex computer system that creates and verifies bitcoins, which are essentially strings of numbers. Due to the authenticated history attached to this virtual money, counterfeiting is virtually impossible.

Once you have a bitcoin, or some BTC, as more lingo goes, you can give it to someone else—a friend, family member, an online storekeeper—over the Internet. You can also exchange the bitcoin into a dollar, euro, yen, rupee and so on.

Moreover, Bitcoin is modeled after some of the ideas behind gold. For instance, the computer systems that "mine" for bitcoins create new coins every 10 minutes and will continue until the total amount reaches a limit of 21 million bitcoins in the year 2140, a number and year that was chosen by an algorithm. Just as there is a finite, if unknown, amount of gold on the planet, there is, or will be, a finite amount of bitcoins, which makes them valuable.

The fact that a computer algorithm dictated the concept of bitcoins, versus the idea of human beings deciding monetary policy, drives their popularity among many enthusiasts. "The idea behind Bitcoin, the most popular instance of cryptocurrency to date, is generally a good one primarily because of its decentralized nature," Way says. "Democratizing some, and perhaps one day all, of the global financial system by using this decentralized digital-currency approach should have a similar effect on the financial market to what the Internet in general has had on information, communication and entertainment."

Way thinks "cautious adoption is likely," and he is likely to get little argument there. There are probably too many skeptics out there for the general public to embrace bitcoins any time soon. Ian Comisky, a partner at Blank Rome, a multidisciplinary law firm with offices throughout the world, is one of those. He believes consumers could face inadvertent tax fraud by investing in it, mostly because some taxpayers might not realize that you have to report any investments in bitcoins as capital gains.

But he also sees a darker side of Bitcoin. As Comisky points out, the anonymous nature of the digital currency means there is scant evidence that you've used it. With conventional money, Comisky says, "there's a paper trail. You make a deposit, and you have a copy of the item, and the money's in your bank account, and a government agency can subpoena that if they need to."

But with bitcoins, because of the almost anonymous nature of the money, "If you're a bad guy, there are a lot of uses for it. You can use bitcoins for tax evasion, launder money with it or use it for narcotics," Comisky says.

Indeed, last year, the Federal Bureau of Investigation came out with an unclassified report, which was immediately leaked online, asserting that at least one online service, a market place called Silk Road, has taken bitcoins as payment for illegal drugs.

Dodi Glenn, director of AV Labs at ThreatTrack Security, a Clearwater, Fla.-based firm that specializes in helping identify and stop sophisticated malware and cyber attacks, points out another problem. "Bitcoin-targeted malware, like viruses and Trojans, can do several bad things to your PC," Glenn says. "For example, hackers can steal account information, such as your username and password, which gives them access to your Bitcoin wallet. They also can hijack your computer and use it to help spread their Bitcoin-stealing malware to other PCs."

Of course, malware can get access to a bank account, too. But banks will give you your money back. "Bitcoins aren't insured with an agency like FDIC, or with an actual bank," says Glenn.

Even if you're confident you are hack-proof, and you're a perfectly good citizen with no interest in money laundering or narcotics, you may wonder why you'd want to pay for anything with a bitcoin. That's the million-dollar question—sorry, the million-bitcoin question. Right now, you can't buy much with bitcoins. It's estimated that only about 100 retailers throughout the world accept them, all arguably obscure businesses like PhoneSomeone, an Australian telephone wholesaler of second-hand equipment, and Grass Hill Alpacas in Haydenville, Mass.

Still, the appeal for some is that with Bitcoin, you can pay friends and family on the Internet for free (although in some cases, there may be a small fee) and without a lot of hassle, once you have digital money in your Bitcoin online wallet. A friend can scan your cell phone with his cell, or you can touch the two smartphones together, provided they both use Near Field Communication technology, and pay each other that way. In fact, you can pay anyone anywhere in the world, within about 10 minutes, according to Bitcoin's website.

But it may take a while for consumers to get comfortable using bitcoins. For instance, the New York City bar, EVR, recently gained a lot of press for being the first New York bar to accept bitcoins. As CNN reported in mid-April, at its then-current value, a $15 martini cost .08 bitcoin. Wrapping one's head around what would be a fair cost for a purchase with bitcoins may take some time.

As the New York bar scene suggests, some businesses and consumers are embracing bitcoins, as are some investors, who clearly hope they can buy low, or low enough, and sell later. Currently, bitcoins aren't pegged to the dollar or any international currency, and their value fluctuates—sometimes wildly. In the past, it has traded for less than a penny. For a time in 2012, each bitcoin was worth less than $5. As of this writing, the exchange rate for 1 bitcoin is 140 American dollars; by the time you read this, it may well be different. You can find the current exchange rate at bitcoinexchangerate.org.

In other words, this isn't an investment for the cautious investor, or anyone who doesn't have money they can afford to lose; nobody should feel confident about putting their life savings into bitcoins. On the other hand, if digital currency isn't here to stay, it's nonetheless making a valiant attempt. It's worth noting that there are other cryptocurrencies vying to be the next Bitcoin, notably litecoins (www.litecoins.org) and PPCoins (www.ppcoin.org).

For those who are intrigued, investing cautiously in bitcoins seems the way to go for now. And if you're someone like Harlan Platt, finance professor at Northeastern University's D'Amore-McKim School of Business, you shouldn't touch it at all.

"Bitcoins are a bit like pixie dust, the substance that Tinker Bell used," Platt says. "It only exists if you believe it exists. Unlike formal currencies, there is nothing that stands behind them such as the full faith and credit of the United States government. Like other schemes, though, it is somewhat like musical chairs. As long as you're not the last person to sit down, the game is fun. The last person left holding these instruments only has a story to tell and no value."


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

Group: Moderator
Hero Member
*****

Posts: 1926
Everyman decries immorality
Moreover, Bitcoin is modeled after some of the ideas behind gold. For instance, the computer systems that "mine" for bitcoins create new coins every 10 minutes and will continue until the total amount reaches a limit of 21 million bitcoins in the year 2140, a number and year that was chosen by an algorithm. Just as there is a finite, if unknown, amount of gold on the planet, there is, or will be, a finite amount of bitcoins, which makes them valuable.

1 hhop volume operating at 100% mining efficiency would be worth a fixed energy value and available at a consistent rate, forever.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

Group: Moderator
Hero Member
*****

Posts: 1926
Everyman decries immorality
Relationship between mathematics and physics

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relationship_between_mathematics_and_physics

The relationship between mathematics and physics has been a subject of study of philosophers, mathematicians and physicists since Antiquity, and more recently also by historians and educators.[2] Generally considered a relationship of great intimacy,[3] mathematics has already been described as "an essential tool for physics"[4] and physics has already been described as "a rich source of inspiration and insight in mathematics".[5]

In his work Physics, one of the topics treated by Aristotle is about how the study carried out by mathematicians differs from that carried out by physicists.[6] Considerations about mathematics being the language of nature can be found in the ideas of the Pythagoreans: the convictions that "Numbers rule the world" and "All is number",[7][8] and two millennia later were also expressed by Galileo Galilei: "The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics".[9][10]

Before giving a mathematical proof for the formula for the volume of a sphere, Archimedes used physical reasoning to discover the solution (imagining the balancing of bodies on a scale).[11] From the seventeenth century, many of the most important advances in mathematics appeared motivated by the study of physics, and this continued in the following centuries (although, it has already been appointed that from the nineteenth century, mathematics started to become increasingly independent from physics).[12][13] The creation and development of calculus were strongly linked to the needs of physics:[14] There was a need for a new mathematical language to deal with the new dynamics that had arisen from the work of scholars such as Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton.[15] During this period there was little distinction between physics and mathematics;[16] as an example, Newton regarded geometry as a branch of mechanics.[17] As time progressed, increasingly sophisticated mathematics started to be used in physics. The current situation is that the mathematical knowledge used in physics is becoming increasingly sophisticated, as in the case of superstring theory.[18]

Philosophical problems

Some of the problems considered in the philosophy of mathematics are the following:

    Explain the effectiveness of mathematics in the study of the physical world: "At this point an enigma presents itself which in all ages has agitated inquiring minds. How can it be that mathematics, being after all a product of human thought which is independent of experience, is so admirably appropriate to the objects of reality?" —Albert Einstein, in Geometry and Experience (1921).[19]

    Clearly delineate mathematics and physics: For some results or discoveries, it is difficult to say to which area they belong: to the mathematics or to physics.[20]

    What is the geometry of physical space?[21]

    What is the origin of the axioms of mathematics?[22]

    How does the already existing mathematics influence in the creation and development of physical theories?[23]

    Is arithmetic a priori or synthetic? (from Kant, see Analytic–synthetic distinction)[24]

    What is essentially different between doing a physical experiment to see the result and making a mathematical calculation to see the result? (from the Turing–Wittgenstein debate)[25]

    Do Gödel's incompleteness theorems imply that physical theories will always be incomplete? (from Stephen Hawking)[26][27]

    Is math invented or discovered? (millennium-old question, raised among others by Mario Livio)[28]

Education


In recent times the two disciplines have most often been taught separately, despite all the interrelations between physics and mathematics.[29] This led some professional mathematicians who were also interested in mathematics education, such as Felix Klein, Richard Courant, Vladimir Arnold and Morris Kline, to strongly advocate teaching mathematics in a way more closely related to the physical sciences.[30][31]


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

Group: Moderator
Hero Member
*****

Posts: 1926
Everyman decries immorality
Math: Discovered, Invented, or Both?

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/blogs/physics/2015/04/great-math-mystery/

“The miracle of the appropriateness of the language of mathematics to the formulation of the laws of physics is a wonderful gift which we neither understand nor deserve.”

Eugene Wigner wrote these words in his 1960 article “The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences.” The Nobel prize-winning physicist’s report still captures the uncanny ability of mathematics not only to describe and explain, but to predict phenomena in the physical world.

How is it possible that all the phenomena observed in classical electricity and magnetism can be explained by means of just four mathematical equations? Moreover, physicist James Clerk Maxwell (after whom those four equations of electromagnetism are named) showed in 1864 that the equations predicted that varying electric or magnetic fields should generate certain propagating waves. These waves—the familiar electromagnetic waves (which include light, radio waves, x-rays, etc.)—were eventually detected by the German physicist Heinrich Hertz in a series of experiments conducted in the late 1880s.

And if that is not enough, the modern mathematical theory which describes how light and matter interact, known as quantum electrodynamics (QED), is even more astonishing. In 2010 a group of physicists at Harvard University determined the magnetic moment of the electron (which measures how strongly the electron interacts with a magnetic field) to a precision of less than one part in a trillion. Calculations of the electron’s magnetic moment based on QED reached about the same precision and the two results agree! What is it that gives mathematics such incredible power?

The puzzle of the power of mathematics is in fact even more complex than the above examples from electromagnetism might suggest. There are actually two facets to the “unreasonable effectiveness,” one that I call active and another that I dub passive. The active facet refers to the fact that when scientists attempt to light their way through the labyrinth of natural phenomena, they use mathematics as their torch. In other words, at least some of the laws of nature are formulated in directly applicable mathematical terms. The mathematical entities, relations, and equations used in those laws were developed for a specific application. Newton, for instance, formulated the branch of mathematics known as calculus because he needed this tool for capturing motion and change, breaking them up into tiny frame-by-frame sequences. Similarly, string theorists today often develop the mathematical machinery they need.

Passive effectiveness, on the other hand, refers to cases in which mathematicians developed abstract branches of mathematics with absolutely no applications in mind; yet decades, or sometimes centuries later, physicists discovered that those theories provided necessary mathematical underpinnings for physical phenomena. Examples of passive effectiveness abound. Mathematician Bernhard Riemann, for example, discussed in the 1850s new types of geometries that you would encounter on surfaces curved like a sphere or a saddle (instead of the flat plane geometry that we learn in school). Then, when Einstein formulated his theory of General Relativity (in 1915), Riemann’s geometries turned out to be precisely the tool he needed!

At the core of this math mystery lies another argument that mathematicians, philosophers, and, most recently, cognitive scientists have had for a long time: Is math an invention of the human brain? Or does math exist in some abstract world, with humans merely discovering its truths? The debate about this question continues to rage today.

Personally, I believe that by asking simply whether mathematics is discovered or invented, we forget the possibility that mathematics is an intricate combination of inventions and discoveries. Indeed, I posit that humans invent the mathematical concepts—numbers, shapes, sets, lines, and so on—by abstracting them from the world around them. They then go on to discover the complex connections among the concepts that they had invented; these are the so-called theorems of mathematics.

I must admit that I do not know the full, compelling answer to the question of what is it that gives mathematics its stupendous powers. That remains a mystery.

Go Deeper
Editor’s picks for further reading

NOVA: The Great Math Mystery
Is math invented by humans, or is it the language of the universe? NOVA takes on this question in a new film premiering April 15, 2015 at 9pm on most PBS stations.

NOVA: Describing Nature with Math
How do scientists use mathematics to define reality? And why? Peter Tyson investigates two millennia of mathematical discovery.

The Washington Post: The Structure of Everything
Learn more about the “unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics” in this review of Mario Livio’s book “Is God a Mathematician?”

dis·cov·er

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/discover

tr.v. dis·cov·ered, dis·cov·er·ing, dis·cov·ers

1. To notice or learn, especially by making an effort: got home and discovered that the furnace wasn't working.

2.  a. To be the first, or the first of one's group or kind, to find, learn of, or observe.

     b. To learn about for the first time in one's experience: discovered a new restaurant on the west side.

3. To learn something about: discovered him to be an impostor; discovered the brake to be defective.

4. To identify (a person) as a potentially prominent performer: a movie star who was discovered in a drugstore by a producer.

5. Archaic To reveal or expose.

in·vent

tr.v. in·vent·ed, in·vent·ing, in·vents

1. To produce or contrive (something previously unknown) by the use of ingenuity or imagination.

2. To make up; fabricate: invent a likely excuse.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   
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