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If 1 hhop can be definitively defined as energy extracted from unit volume space, it is a stable baseline.

Energy Currency

http://www.theperfectcurrency.org/main-energy-currency/energy-currency

Towards a Perfect Currency

Environmentalists measure in real physical units, not monetary units. Money was developed to facilitate the trade of disparate real goods across a broad range of distances where direct exchange of goods was impractical. But money has many shortcomings in representing the full real wealth creation process and assets especially over time. Environmentalists have waited patiently for the commercial economics side of the real wealth creation process to develop monetary measurements which will capture the stocks and flows of environmental processes and non-renewable resource assets.
 
Without such common measurements, no broad based and unified initiatives on our planets many environmental challenges can easily take place. There will continue to be strong resistance from the commercial economics sector to any environmental sector efforts to make radical policy changes based on factors which do not show up in their monetary based accounting system.
 
If we wait for commercial economists to develop a unit of measure which clearly represents all processes, we will wait in vain as it is not in the interests of the finance sector to change. It is up to the science community to provide a monetary basis which will adequately represent both human and natural processes.
 
Fortunately there is now an opportunity to combine the real wealth creation sectors demand for a representative currency with the need of the commercial economics sector to change the currency used as the basis for international trade.
 
As the international standard of commerce, the American dollar has had its day.
 
The proposal by Zhou Xiaochuan, governor of China’s central bank, in March 2009, to establish an international financial reserve currency based on a basket of national currencies is only the start of the process to replace the US dollar as the medium of trade and finance.
 
But a basket based currency, even if it is more stable, also adds more complexity. It is still based on printed money valuations and incorporates all of the other weaknesses inherent in currencies which are not hard asset based.
 
Even though the Chinese proposal was widely rejected, the need for a stable international trading currency is clear and is the subject of ongoing discussion. But why settle for another fabricated currency? The opportunity exists to advance to a real and stable standard.
 
Upon which bedrock can an upgraded currency be based to facilitate accurate valuations, stability, fluidity to represent any scale of asset or transaction and offer resistance to speculation? Gold is limited by scarcity and scalability. Although it can dampen the gyrations of national currencies, it doesn’t represent in and of itself, the real wealth creation process.
 
There is only one commodity which is universally produced and consumed with both the scale and resolution to represent the full scope of any human endeavour. We already measure it in tremendous detail and it is central to every economy and process.
 
Energy based currency would represent real wealth creation potential and would not be subject to the shifting valuation issues to which every national currency is prone. Energy represents the value of work already done as well as the potential of work which can be done.
 
Some 800 years ago, the Mongols avoided inflationary pressures on their currency by performing inventories of their assets and matching the money supply to it. The Mongol empire did not suffer from the boom and bust cycle generated by the currency inflation which has plagued other monetary economies. Energy based currency would eliminate this cycle by representing constant real product and illuminating actual input costs.
 
Energy underwrites all commercial and environmental activity. It is the most widely measured, consumed and produced commodity on the planet. In contrast to the gold producing club, every nation produces energy from a wide variety of sources.
 
Energy currency? Fine. But which units should be used? A barrel of oil in raw energy numbers, contains 5.9 million btus, 1729 kilowatt hours, 6.2 billion joules or 1.49 billion calories. Awkward, to say the least. Currently a US dollar (at $50/bbl of oil) translates to about 120,000 btus, 35kw hours, 120 million joules and 30 million calories. Kilowatt hours is the best known and the most widely used measurement.
 
The closest thing to being a round number while having roughly the same magnitude as the current US dollar would be 100,000 btus or 100 million joules. Will we settle on “beatees”, “julies” or “watties” as the base currency unit?
 
Scientists would help monetary experts decide. That would be a new partnership. The first of many paradigm shifts necessary in the integration of real world physical accounting and the representation of commercial economic activity.
 
A kilowatt hour (or BTU, joule, calorie) is the same in Canada as it is in Kazakstan. It represents the same potential now as it would have centuries ago or will centuries into the future. As a scientific unit of measure, there will be no speculation about what a kilowatt will be worth in 10 years.
 
“Speculating”, “hedging”, “converting”, “runs against” - these would be superfluous activities of the past. Energy currency is elemental, timeless and universal; three qualities which arbitrary currencies or other commodity based currencies do not possess.
 
In moving to energy based currency, we will have made a huge step forward in stabilizing and rationalizing the economic process at every level. And when the technology is ready in 30 or 300 years, we can step easily from energy based currency to energy actually being the currency.
 
If energy storage technology can be developed to the point at which several thousand kilowatt hours can (safely) be carried on something the size of a credit card, then we will have developed the perfect currency.
 
Commodities, services and goods will always fluctuate in relation to energy but those fluctuations would be no longer be speculatively driven on the monetary side - they would be real cost and real demand driven. And there would never be a stampede away from energy. To what? Time?
 
Our current national policy focus on monetary flows is one of the prime reasons for the disconnect between policy makers and environmentalists. The GDP/monetary metric simply does not represent the physical processes or the assets of the real world which environmentalists see as essential, uncounted and rapidly degrading.
 
Energy currency very readily yields energy accounting which can provide a more comprehensive description of real output and resource consumption. Compared to monetary analysis, it is a 3D catscan for programs associated with alternative energy and carbon emissions. These issues need energy accounting to avoid negative sum game red-herrings like corn ethanol at northern latitudes which can survive only in the fog of our current monetary system.
 
In contrast to adopting energy currency, the process of dumping the US dollar in favour of a spectrum of other national currencies is a political minefield loaded with huge implications for the many players.
 
No matter who champions it, no one nation will own energy based money. It will be the first truly international, non-political currency base. No nation will be able to manipulate it to avoid the consequences of its own economic mis-steps or to beggar its neighbours.
 
The recent Chinese efforts to promote the creation of a new standard for international financial reserves have not produced results although the reasons for the proposal remain obvious and valid. A move to energy based currency offers a graceful and non-political avenue of monetary reform as a logical step forward not an abandonment of a failure.
 
Despite the rejection of Mr. Zhou’s initiative, the ball is still in his court and will remain there until a successor to the US dollar is found.
 
In the face of rapidly deteriorating environmental conditions as well as the necessity of retooling international finance, change must come to our monetary system. Conversion to an energy standard will take full advantage of this opportunity.
 
Energy Currency has all of the positive attributes of arbitrary money without many of the large problems. It opens the possibility of addressing environmental problems in a comprehensive fashion - something that baseless currencies cannot do.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Everyman decries immorality
Should You Invest in Bitcoin?

http://money.usnews.com/money/personal-finance/articles/2013/05/01/should-you-invest-in-bitcoin

Is this digital currency the wave of the future, or a craze to avoid?

If you get wistful imagining the American penny discontinued, a topic that makes the rounds every once in a while, imagine the thought of getting rid of the penny, nickel, quarter, dollar and the rest of American currency—and using bitcoins instead.

Bitcoins have been around for a few years, but there has been buzz in the mainstream media lately due to the digital currency recently both shooting up and plummeting in value.

It can be hard to comprehend at first, in part because Bitcoin, in upper case, refers to the software code that makes the digital currency and the network that distributes it, and bitcoins, in lowercase, refer to the currency itself. Then there's simply grasping the concept: Although bitcoins have a logo that looks like a coin, you will never actually hold one in your hand. Still, with debit and credit cards and online and mobile banking, a consumer these days could theoretically go weeks, months or perhaps years, if they never tip, without touching actual money.

Some people think bitcoins are the wave of the future, a digital form of money that could someday be a universal form of money that replaces the dollar, euro, yen, rupee and onward along the international currency chain. "If even modestly successful, Bitcoin could wind up being the tipping point of a sea change regarding how we are paid and how we pay for things," says Thomas Way, a computing sciences professor at Villanova University in Villanova, Pa.

Others think its future will fall more along the lines of the recent housing bubble, or even the Beanie Babies craze of the 1990s, when some people bought hundreds and thousands of the stuffed toys, planning to sell them one day to fund their retirement or kids' college education.

"People shouldn't invest in Bitcoin. And I think writing about Bitcoin will cause people to lose more money than if the media simply ignore it," says Peter Cohan, who teaches business strategy at Babson College in Wellesley, Mass., and has a background in management consulting and venture capital.

Bitcoin was created in 2009 as a software code project, with the goal to verify and safeguard financial transactions without the assistance of a centralized bank or government treasury. These digital dollars are "mined," as the lingo goes, involving a complex computer system that creates and verifies bitcoins, which are essentially strings of numbers. Due to the authenticated history attached to this virtual money, counterfeiting is virtually impossible.

Once you have a bitcoin, or some BTC, as more lingo goes, you can give it to someone else—a friend, family member, an online storekeeper—over the Internet. You can also exchange the bitcoin into a dollar, euro, yen, rupee and so on.

Moreover, Bitcoin is modeled after some of the ideas behind gold. For instance, the computer systems that "mine" for bitcoins create new coins every 10 minutes and will continue until the total amount reaches a limit of 21 million bitcoins in the year 2140, a number and year that was chosen by an algorithm. Just as there is a finite, if unknown, amount of gold on the planet, there is, or will be, a finite amount of bitcoins, which makes them valuable.

The fact that a computer algorithm dictated the concept of bitcoins, versus the idea of human beings deciding monetary policy, drives their popularity among many enthusiasts. "The idea behind Bitcoin, the most popular instance of cryptocurrency to date, is generally a good one primarily because of its decentralized nature," Way says. "Democratizing some, and perhaps one day all, of the global financial system by using this decentralized digital-currency approach should have a similar effect on the financial market to what the Internet in general has had on information, communication and entertainment."

Way thinks "cautious adoption is likely," and he is likely to get little argument there. There are probably too many skeptics out there for the general public to embrace bitcoins any time soon. Ian Comisky, a partner at Blank Rome, a multidisciplinary law firm with offices throughout the world, is one of those. He believes consumers could face inadvertent tax fraud by investing in it, mostly because some taxpayers might not realize that you have to report any investments in bitcoins as capital gains.

But he also sees a darker side of Bitcoin. As Comisky points out, the anonymous nature of the digital currency means there is scant evidence that you've used it. With conventional money, Comisky says, "there's a paper trail. You make a deposit, and you have a copy of the item, and the money's in your bank account, and a government agency can subpoena that if they need to."

But with bitcoins, because of the almost anonymous nature of the money, "If you're a bad guy, there are a lot of uses for it. You can use bitcoins for tax evasion, launder money with it or use it for narcotics," Comisky says.

Indeed, last year, the Federal Bureau of Investigation came out with an unclassified report, which was immediately leaked online, asserting that at least one online service, a market place called Silk Road, has taken bitcoins as payment for illegal drugs.

Dodi Glenn, director of AV Labs at ThreatTrack Security, a Clearwater, Fla.-based firm that specializes in helping identify and stop sophisticated malware and cyber attacks, points out another problem. "Bitcoin-targeted malware, like viruses and Trojans, can do several bad things to your PC," Glenn says. "For example, hackers can steal account information, such as your username and password, which gives them access to your Bitcoin wallet. They also can hijack your computer and use it to help spread their Bitcoin-stealing malware to other PCs."

Of course, malware can get access to a bank account, too. But banks will give you your money back. "Bitcoins aren't insured with an agency like FDIC, or with an actual bank," says Glenn.

Even if you're confident you are hack-proof, and you're a perfectly good citizen with no interest in money laundering or narcotics, you may wonder why you'd want to pay for anything with a bitcoin. That's the million-dollar question—sorry, the million-bitcoin question. Right now, you can't buy much with bitcoins. It's estimated that only about 100 retailers throughout the world accept them, all arguably obscure businesses like PhoneSomeone, an Australian telephone wholesaler of second-hand equipment, and Grass Hill Alpacas in Haydenville, Mass.

Still, the appeal for some is that with Bitcoin, you can pay friends and family on the Internet for free (although in some cases, there may be a small fee) and without a lot of hassle, once you have digital money in your Bitcoin online wallet. A friend can scan your cell phone with his cell, or you can touch the two smartphones together, provided they both use Near Field Communication technology, and pay each other that way. In fact, you can pay anyone anywhere in the world, within about 10 minutes, according to Bitcoin's website.

But it may take a while for consumers to get comfortable using bitcoins. For instance, the New York City bar, EVR, recently gained a lot of press for being the first New York bar to accept bitcoins. As CNN reported in mid-April, at its then-current value, a $15 martini cost .08 bitcoin. Wrapping one's head around what would be a fair cost for a purchase with bitcoins may take some time.

As the New York bar scene suggests, some businesses and consumers are embracing bitcoins, as are some investors, who clearly hope they can buy low, or low enough, and sell later. Currently, bitcoins aren't pegged to the dollar or any international currency, and their value fluctuates—sometimes wildly. In the past, it has traded for less than a penny. For a time in 2012, each bitcoin was worth less than $5. As of this writing, the exchange rate for 1 bitcoin is 140 American dollars; by the time you read this, it may well be different. You can find the current exchange rate at bitcoinexchangerate.org.

In other words, this isn't an investment for the cautious investor, or anyone who doesn't have money they can afford to lose; nobody should feel confident about putting their life savings into bitcoins. On the other hand, if digital currency isn't here to stay, it's nonetheless making a valiant attempt. It's worth noting that there are other cryptocurrencies vying to be the next Bitcoin, notably litecoins (www.litecoins.org) and PPCoins (www.ppcoin.org).

For those who are intrigued, investing cautiously in bitcoins seems the way to go for now. And if you're someone like Harlan Platt, finance professor at Northeastern University's D'Amore-McKim School of Business, you shouldn't touch it at all.

"Bitcoins are a bit like pixie dust, the substance that Tinker Bell used," Platt says. "It only exists if you believe it exists. Unlike formal currencies, there is nothing that stands behind them such as the full faith and credit of the United States government. Like other schemes, though, it is somewhat like musical chairs. As long as you're not the last person to sit down, the game is fun. The last person left holding these instruments only has a story to tell and no value."


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Everyman decries immorality
Moreover, Bitcoin is modeled after some of the ideas behind gold. For instance, the computer systems that "mine" for bitcoins create new coins every 10 minutes and will continue until the total amount reaches a limit of 21 million bitcoins in the year 2140, a number and year that was chosen by an algorithm. Just as there is a finite, if unknown, amount of gold on the planet, there is, or will be, a finite amount of bitcoins, which makes them valuable.

1 hhop volume operating at 100% mining efficiency would be worth a fixed energy value and available at a consistent rate, forever.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Everyman decries immorality
Relationship between mathematics and physics

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relationship_between_mathematics_and_physics

The relationship between mathematics and physics has been a subject of study of philosophers, mathematicians and physicists since Antiquity, and more recently also by historians and educators.[2] Generally considered a relationship of great intimacy,[3] mathematics has already been described as "an essential tool for physics"[4] and physics has already been described as "a rich source of inspiration and insight in mathematics".[5]

In his work Physics, one of the topics treated by Aristotle is about how the study carried out by mathematicians differs from that carried out by physicists.[6] Considerations about mathematics being the language of nature can be found in the ideas of the Pythagoreans: the convictions that "Numbers rule the world" and "All is number",[7][8] and two millennia later were also expressed by Galileo Galilei: "The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics".[9][10]

Before giving a mathematical proof for the formula for the volume of a sphere, Archimedes used physical reasoning to discover the solution (imagining the balancing of bodies on a scale).[11] From the seventeenth century, many of the most important advances in mathematics appeared motivated by the study of physics, and this continued in the following centuries (although, it has already been appointed that from the nineteenth century, mathematics started to become increasingly independent from physics).[12][13] The creation and development of calculus were strongly linked to the needs of physics:[14] There was a need for a new mathematical language to deal with the new dynamics that had arisen from the work of scholars such as Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton.[15] During this period there was little distinction between physics and mathematics;[16] as an example, Newton regarded geometry as a branch of mechanics.[17] As time progressed, increasingly sophisticated mathematics started to be used in physics. The current situation is that the mathematical knowledge used in physics is becoming increasingly sophisticated, as in the case of superstring theory.[18]

Philosophical problems

Some of the problems considered in the philosophy of mathematics are the following:

    Explain the effectiveness of mathematics in the study of the physical world: "At this point an enigma presents itself which in all ages has agitated inquiring minds. How can it be that mathematics, being after all a product of human thought which is independent of experience, is so admirably appropriate to the objects of reality?" —Albert Einstein, in Geometry and Experience (1921).[19]

    Clearly delineate mathematics and physics: For some results or discoveries, it is difficult to say to which area they belong: to the mathematics or to physics.[20]

    What is the geometry of physical space?[21]

    What is the origin of the axioms of mathematics?[22]

    How does the already existing mathematics influence in the creation and development of physical theories?[23]

    Is arithmetic a priori or synthetic? (from Kant, see Analytic–synthetic distinction)[24]

    What is essentially different between doing a physical experiment to see the result and making a mathematical calculation to see the result? (from the Turing–Wittgenstein debate)[25]

    Do Gödel's incompleteness theorems imply that physical theories will always be incomplete? (from Stephen Hawking)[26][27]

    Is math invented or discovered? (millennium-old question, raised among others by Mario Livio)[28]

Education


In recent times the two disciplines have most often been taught separately, despite all the interrelations between physics and mathematics.[29] This led some professional mathematicians who were also interested in mathematics education, such as Felix Klein, Richard Courant, Vladimir Arnold and Morris Kline, to strongly advocate teaching mathematics in a way more closely related to the physical sciences.[30][31]


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Everyman decries immorality
Math: Discovered, Invented, or Both?

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/blogs/physics/2015/04/great-math-mystery/

“The miracle of the appropriateness of the language of mathematics to the formulation of the laws of physics is a wonderful gift which we neither understand nor deserve.”

Eugene Wigner wrote these words in his 1960 article “The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences.” The Nobel prize-winning physicist’s report still captures the uncanny ability of mathematics not only to describe and explain, but to predict phenomena in the physical world.

How is it possible that all the phenomena observed in classical electricity and magnetism can be explained by means of just four mathematical equations? Moreover, physicist James Clerk Maxwell (after whom those four equations of electromagnetism are named) showed in 1864 that the equations predicted that varying electric or magnetic fields should generate certain propagating waves. These waves—the familiar electromagnetic waves (which include light, radio waves, x-rays, etc.)—were eventually detected by the German physicist Heinrich Hertz in a series of experiments conducted in the late 1880s.

And if that is not enough, the modern mathematical theory which describes how light and matter interact, known as quantum electrodynamics (QED), is even more astonishing. In 2010 a group of physicists at Harvard University determined the magnetic moment of the electron (which measures how strongly the electron interacts with a magnetic field) to a precision of less than one part in a trillion. Calculations of the electron’s magnetic moment based on QED reached about the same precision and the two results agree! What is it that gives mathematics such incredible power?

The puzzle of the power of mathematics is in fact even more complex than the above examples from electromagnetism might suggest. There are actually two facets to the “unreasonable effectiveness,” one that I call active and another that I dub passive. The active facet refers to the fact that when scientists attempt to light their way through the labyrinth of natural phenomena, they use mathematics as their torch. In other words, at least some of the laws of nature are formulated in directly applicable mathematical terms. The mathematical entities, relations, and equations used in those laws were developed for a specific application. Newton, for instance, formulated the branch of mathematics known as calculus because he needed this tool for capturing motion and change, breaking them up into tiny frame-by-frame sequences. Similarly, string theorists today often develop the mathematical machinery they need.

Passive effectiveness, on the other hand, refers to cases in which mathematicians developed abstract branches of mathematics with absolutely no applications in mind; yet decades, or sometimes centuries later, physicists discovered that those theories provided necessary mathematical underpinnings for physical phenomena. Examples of passive effectiveness abound. Mathematician Bernhard Riemann, for example, discussed in the 1850s new types of geometries that you would encounter on surfaces curved like a sphere or a saddle (instead of the flat plane geometry that we learn in school). Then, when Einstein formulated his theory of General Relativity (in 1915), Riemann’s geometries turned out to be precisely the tool he needed!

At the core of this math mystery lies another argument that mathematicians, philosophers, and, most recently, cognitive scientists have had for a long time: Is math an invention of the human brain? Or does math exist in some abstract world, with humans merely discovering its truths? The debate about this question continues to rage today.

Personally, I believe that by asking simply whether mathematics is discovered or invented, we forget the possibility that mathematics is an intricate combination of inventions and discoveries. Indeed, I posit that humans invent the mathematical concepts—numbers, shapes, sets, lines, and so on—by abstracting them from the world around them. They then go on to discover the complex connections among the concepts that they had invented; these are the so-called theorems of mathematics.

I must admit that I do not know the full, compelling answer to the question of what is it that gives mathematics its stupendous powers. That remains a mystery.

Go Deeper
Editor’s picks for further reading

NOVA: The Great Math Mystery
Is math invented by humans, or is it the language of the universe? NOVA takes on this question in a new film premiering April 15, 2015 at 9pm on most PBS stations.

NOVA: Describing Nature with Math
How do scientists use mathematics to define reality? And why? Peter Tyson investigates two millennia of mathematical discovery.

The Washington Post: The Structure of Everything
Learn more about the “unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics” in this review of Mario Livio’s book “Is God a Mathematician?”

dis·cov·er

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/discover

tr.v. dis·cov·ered, dis·cov·er·ing, dis·cov·ers

1. To notice or learn, especially by making an effort: got home and discovered that the furnace wasn't working.

2.  a. To be the first, or the first of one's group or kind, to find, learn of, or observe.

     b. To learn about for the first time in one's experience: discovered a new restaurant on the west side.

3. To learn something about: discovered him to be an impostor; discovered the brake to be defective.

4. To identify (a person) as a potentially prominent performer: a movie star who was discovered in a drugstore by a producer.

5. Archaic To reveal or expose.

in·vent

tr.v. in·vent·ed, in·vent·ing, in·vents

1. To produce or contrive (something previously unknown) by the use of ingenuity or imagination.

2. To make up; fabricate: invent a likely excuse.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

Group: Moderator
Hero Member
*****

Posts: 2037
Everyman decries immorality
If 1 hhop can be definitively defined as energy extracted from unit volume space, it is a stable baseline.

INTRODUCING - THE LECTRO!!

http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/WRHARTICLES/LECTRO/lectro.php#axzz4sO84shDo

by Michael Rivero

As the world financial markets watch the Plunge Protection Team shovel US taxpayer dollars into the flames of reality, propping up the stock markets in a gravity-defying display (I would bet on gravity to win), it is becoming obvious to all that the debt-based currency system of the private central banks, while quite profitable for the bankers, is a dismal failure for civilization as a whole. Humans have labored under this failed experiment for almost 400 years while the media proclaims this is the only form of banking possible. Leaders who say otherwise are assassinated while nations trying alternatives are invaded. As a means to great wealth for little effort, private central banking using debt-based currency is a marvelous invention, although contrary to the devotees of Adam Smith, this elaborate exercise in personal greed has not advanced civilization along at all. Quite the contrary, any advances made have been in spite of the extreme hindrances and burdens placed on the world at large by the private bankers. Modern economic theory, usually bought and paid for by those bankers, strive to reconcile the revealed dogma with the ever-growing evidence that the system is deeply flawed and should be abandoned. In this, said economists are not unlike students of epicycles, who strove valiantly to reconcile Galileo's observations suggesting a heliocentric solar system with the church's enforced-by-torture geocentric dogma.

The fact is that this model of a private central bank creating money out of thin air to loan to the people and governments was the very economic system this nation fought a revolution to be free of. While our schools teach us of tea parties and stamp acts, they rarely mention the Currency Act any more, even though it was the primary reason for the revolution.

The American colonies issued their own currency, which existed in ample supply to ensure full employment and prosperity for all. But when Ben Franklin described this economic paradise while ambassador to London, the Bank of England panicked! England was even then in the grip of monumental poverty for the masses brought on by the predations of the bankers, and the Bank of England feared that if word of an alterative system reached the people, riots would be the result. So, the Bank of England lobbied King George III to pass the Currency act which ordered the colonists only to use banknotes borrowed at interest from the Bank of England. It took only a few years for this Currency act to reduce the American colonies to the same level of poverty and starvation as their English brethren.

"[It was] the poverty caused by the bad influence of the English bankers on the Parliament which has caused in the colonies hatred of the English and . . . the Revolutionary War." -- Benjamin Franklin

Naturally our schools stopped teaching about the Currency act the same time the Federal Reserve system was brought into being, to obscure the fact that we had all been returned, courtesy of a corrupt Congress and a corrupt President, into the clutches of the very same sort of banker slavery we had fought a war to be free of.

"I am a most unhappy man. I have unwittingly ruined my country. A great industrial nation is now controlled by its system of credit.We are no longer a government by free opinion, no longer a government by conviction and the vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and duress of a small group of dominant men."
-- Woodrow Wilson 1919

More and more citizens everywhere cry for a return to the economic system that worked best for the people. They yearn for a government issued value-based currency such as this nation was started with. But should we return to a gold standard?

Throughout history, many materials have been used as a medium of exchange. Primitive people used shells, Arabs used salt (origin of the expression "the man is worth his salt.") , and during the last Great Depression a town newspaper printed up their own promissory notes good for free advertising in the paper and used them to barter goods in the town. These ad-based currencies came to be more trusted than the US issued dollars! Germany, when freeing itself from the private central bank imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, redeemed their value-based currency in units of labor. The result was the German Miracle that so terrified the private bankers they organized a boycott to destroy the new German economy before other nations decided to copy it.

World War 2 was the result.

More recently, Libya established a state-controlled bank issuing a value-based currency, the Gold Dinar, which was gaining in popularity across Africa. Invasion followed. Even in the United States, we have had three Presidents try to pry the nation's finances back from the grip of the private bankers, Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, and John F. Kennedy.

"Gentlemen, I have had men watching you for a long time and I am convinced that you have used the funds of the bank to speculate in the breadstuffs of the country. When you won, you divided the profits amongst you, and when you lost, you charged it to the bank. You tell me that if I take the deposits from the bank and annul its charter, I shall ruin ten thousand families. That may be true, gentlemen, but that is your sin! Should I let you go on, you will ruin fifty thousand families, and that would be my sin! You are a den of vipers and thieves. I intend to rout you out, and by the Eternal God, I will rout you out." -- Andrew Jackson

Of the three, only Andrew Jackson succeeded in shutting down the bank. He is also the only US President to pay off the National Debt completely. There was an attempted assassination shortly afterwards, with a confession that clearly indicated a financial motive for the attempt. Both Abraham Lincoln and John F. Kennedy used Article 1 Section 8 of the Constitution to issue government currency that did not pay interest to the private banks. Both men were assassinated and their interest-free money destroyed. In Kennedy's case, a banker, John J. McCloy, President of the Chase Manhattan Bank and President of the World Bank, was appointed to the Warren Commission that whitewashed the circumstances of the assassination.

So, should we return to the gold standard?

My reply is "no."

To be useful as money, the medium for exchange must be something that is universally agreed upon to have value while at the same time existing in enough supply to prevent manipulation by the money-junkies. In arguing about a new value standard for money one detractor argued that gold was the only possible basis for a new monetary system because only gold was universally valued. Obviously, that is not true. One could walk into any nation carrying a gallon of gasoline and find someone willing to trade for it. So clearly, other mediums of exchange are possible, even if we did not have prior history to assure us if their validity and success.

The problem with gold and silver as mediums of exchange is they exist in too small a quantity relative to the growing population. Gold and silver can be manipulated, hoarded, and shorted, to make the speculators rich at the expense of everyone else. Most of the existing gold and silver are already in the hands of the very same bankers who wrecked our present system, so moving to a gold standard merely trades one form of banker-slavery for another.

What is needed is a medium for exchange that increases in supply right alongside the population itself, in order to maintain stability and constant value.

So, my suggestion is to use electricity as the universal basis for a new value-based money system. For the purposes of discussion I call the new US monetary unit the "Lectro." It is redeemable for one kilowatt hour of electricity. The reason I think this is an idea worth pursuing are as follows.

1. While the US Government will have a motive to create electrical power in order to redeem the tokens (coins) and claim checks (Lectro certificates) issued for commerce, creation of electricity and hence money cannot be monopolized. There is no central issuing authority. Every home can have solar panels generating power to the grid, which is redeemable in Lectro notes. In a way we already do this when we pay for power for paper notes and for those able to sell power back to the utility, trade generated power for notes back. This is simply taking the idea to a national scale and making it the de-fact monetary system. and because everyone can generate electricity, artificial scarcity of supply cannot be created.

2. Because power is now the actual monetary system, this approach encourages efficient (and with the proper tax penalties for pollution) clean power generation as well as conservation at the consumer and factory levels.

3. Nobody can short the money supply because everyone can create their own power and monetize it through the treasury. Runaway inflation is impossible because all the coins and certificates in circulation are tied to the available power grid. As power is created, coins and certificates flow into circulation. As power is used, the coins and certificates are taken out of circulation.

4. In the long term, creation of an energy-based money system will smooth the transition from a human-labor to machine-labor society. At present, human labor precedes all capital, payable in a monetary system that pays primarily for human labor. In switching to a monetary system that pays for machine based power production, we evolve towards a society where machines become the primary creators of capital, and all humans shift towards the demand side of the economy. Instead of creating poverty, the push towards automation creates more wealth.


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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hhop gen 8 -> 1



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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

Group: Moderator
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Posts: 2037
Everyman decries immorality
hhop gen 8 -> 1

I did not invent hhop gen 1:

hho gas detonation water pump device:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c76yT2DslP8

Jump to 09:25 for the important visual data.. Is the majority of the water being pumped in 2009 by the gas creation/bleeding cycle, or is it from the explosion/implosion event ?

What stable pressure before auto ignition occurs can the gas created on demand sustain ? Is this a controllable repeatable phenomena ? 

hho was just not a powerful enough fuel to fire a water slug, so I invented hhop gen 2.. which still didn't work and fire a water slug.. so we got hhop gen 3.. etc..

hhop V algae ?

hhop gen 1 becomes a viable water slug repulsor when the fuel it needs becomes known, I call this system hhop gen 8. A high efficiency water wheel alternator is utilised to convert the kinetic work done to static electricity potential in another frame of reference.


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

Group: Moderator
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Posts: 2037
Everyman decries immorality
The US And Russia Agree To Build A Moon-Orbiting Space Station Together

https://www.forbes.com/sites/bridaineparnell/2017/09/28/the-us-and-russia-agree-to-build-a-moon-orbiting-space-station-together/#2a32ea964845

The US and Russia are going to team up for a space station near the Moon that will provide a starting point for future deep space exploration.

NASA and Roscosmos, the respective space agencies, said they had signed an agreement on the “deep space gateway”, which for now is still in the planning stages.

The idea of the deep space gateway is to provide a place where astronauts can test the systems needed to go into deep space, including trips to Mars. It will also be a place where astronauts can experience extended time in space, but still be within a few days of planet Earth.

After that, a lunar base could provide a staging area for longer missions. For example, NASA or Roscosmos could send up the supplies needed for long missions in stages and store them at the station, reducing the cost and complexity of blasting off large weights from Earth. This idea of space travel is particularly relevant if and when reusable rockets become the norm.

NASA has previously said that its first exploration around the Moon will happen on the first mission of the Space Launch System rocket and the Orion Spacecraft. The agency is hoping to then have a flight per year to the Moon after the second mission is completed.

The agency is already working on concept studies for a lunar base with industry partners and Roscosmos is preparing to do the same.

"While the deep space gateway is still in concept formulation, NASA is pleased to see growing international interest in moving into cislunar space as the next step for advancing human space exploration," said Robert Lightfoot, NASA's acting administrator at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

"Statements such as this one signed with Roscosmos show the gateway concept as an enabler to the kind of exploration architecture that is affordable and sustainable."

Getting an ambitious project like this one off the ground will require engagement from multiple countries and companies, the agency added. Talks are already ongoing with European, Japanese and Canadian space agencies as well, which have all worked with NASA and Roscosmos on the International Space Station (ISS).

Roscosmos and NASA are working on drawing up common exploration objectives and possible missions that will kick off in the 2020s and plan to build on their experience of operating the ISS together.

Russia has previously talked about plans to send its cosmonauts to the surface of the Moon and build a base there, as well as building another Earth-orbiting station to follow the ISS. But it’s unlikely that the country can manage such ambitious goals alone. Right now, NASA uses Russian rockets to fly to the ISS and Russia may well look at this agreement as an opportunity to hitch a ride on NASA’s new rockets to the Moon.

Both Russia and the US have also expressed interest in getting to Mars within the next 20 years or so and it’s likely that the countries will need to cooperate with each other and further partners to make that happen.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Everyman decries immorality
Astronauts Have No Borders

https://intpolicydigest.org/2016/05/20/astronauts-have-no-borders/

Between May 13-18 Bucharest was the 3rd most astronaut-populated place in the world after NASA and Star City in Moscow. 13 astronauts from 9 countries reunited in Bucharest to celebrate the 35th anniversary of the 1st Romanian space flight made by Dumitru-Dorin Prunariu.

On 14 May 1981, two astronauts left platform 14 on Baikonur cosmodrome. One was Dumitru-Dorin Prunariu, a young lieutenant of the Romanian army and an engineer who specialized in aeronautics and had scored the highest results among all the non-Soviet astronauts during his training in Star City. The other was Leonid Popov, Soviet cosmonaut, the only one at that time who had hit the record of 185 days spent in space. They flew on Soyuz-40 space mission and docked on Saliut 6 – Saliut T 4 orbital space complex, as part of Interkosmos, a space exploration program of the former USSR which included also 13 non-Soviet astronauts.

“My 35th anniversary is special,” says Dumitru-Dorin Prunariu, “because I have managed to bring in Bucharest many astronauts and cosmonauts from 8 countries. Their presence and their statements made here during these days prove that Space is an area of international cooperation for peaceful purposes and an area of people with deep understanding of planet Earth and the need to protect Earth.”

All these astronauts have amazing and inspirational stories.

Dumitru – Dorin Prunariu, the first and only Romanian astronaut, currently holds several high positions in the European Space Agency, as deputy-president of the International Relations Committee, and in the UN Space sub-committees in Vienna, as the Committee for Peaceful Use of the Outer Space and the committee for Asteroid Warning.

He is also the president of the European section of the Association of Space Explorers, the astronauts’ professional organization that includes 400 astronauts from 37 countries.

Georgi Ivanov is the first Bulgarian astronaut and Aleksandr Alexandrov is the second Bulgarian astronaut. Bertalan Farkas is the first Hungarian astronaut.

The Frenchman Jean-Pierre Haigniére is married to a female astronaut, thus making the world’s three couples of astronauts. He can fly any type of plane and he currently serves as advisor to the director of the European Space Agency. When asked what is the life of a “cosmic couple” like, Jean-Pierre Haigniére confesses that they face the same problems as ordinary people and being a space traveller does not help solve problems on Earth.

Michel Tognini , the second French astronaut, is the one who, during his second flight in space on Columbia space shuttle, placed Chandra observatory in orbit. He is currently working in research on planet Mars. When asked what impresses him most about space, he answered: “The Earth as a whole! There is no border. When you see the Earth, you only see the thin atmosphere layer between Earth and the Universe which keeps us alive.”

Reinhold Ewald was a member of the second German mission on MIR space station and director of the training and flight center of the European Space Agency. Reinhold also teaches in the University of Stuttgart, and has an inquisitive attitude which he offers through explanations for his undergraduates. He does not lose any opportunity to gather data and information. During visits, he always stays behind to ask and answer questions.

Gerhard Thiele from Germany is currently the head of the Manned Flights Planning Office of the European Space Agency. Gerhard is also thirsty for new information and is always seeking information.

Helen Sharman, the first British female astronaut and the first female astronaut on MIR station, encourages people to follow their dreams. She became an astronaut after answering a contest on the radio and competed with 13,000 candidates. Helen says “in space there is no gender difference and women do not face particular biological challenges, on the contrary, the shorter distance between heart and brain makes it easier for women than for men in space. However, radiation affects humans. On short term, it is easier for women. On longer term, it is thought to affect genes and reproduction.”

André Kuipers, the second astronaut from the Netherlands, sends amazing photos from space. He is able to grasp breath-taking details of planet Earth. The photos reflect his love for Earth which is also reflected in his propensity to encourage strong education for the younger generation.

Valeri Korzun, the commander of the astronauts’ detachment in Star City in Russia, confesses:”It is not easy to be the commander of Star City – now I have 36 cosmonauts, half of them Heroes of Russia! It is difficult to control this group!” says Valeri and then bursts into laughter. “Before we used to be military, it was easier to control them, now we are civilian and they are spread, not so many remain in Star City when they don’t train. I control every step they take, from selection to launch, their training, their personal problems, in a direct relation, no intermediate level. I am their father, I know everything. Once a week we have a meeting with all, otherwise, on one-to-one basis, for exams, training in simulator…”

Richard Richards was a commander in 3 out of 4 space missions on Columbia and Discovery space-shuttles from the USA. He is very modest. He says that he was in command so many times because ”NASA was very good to me. My first flight was in March, 1996, right after the loss of Challenger in January, and I tried to help, and NASA appreciated so they put me in command. The biggest challenge as a commander is to assign the crew tasks where their strengths are maximized but since I had a wonderful crew, I didn’t have to work so hard, they were all motivated…The only special situation I encountered was on my 3rd flight when I had to land on Edwards Airforce base and there was a cyclone in Southern California, with 400 thunderstorms embedded in it, so Houston said in the last minute: Let’s land in Florida! That was an apprehensive situation!” says Richard laughing.

Astronauts may look like ordinary people but they are not.

I noticed that when astronauts are 63-67 years old they climbed 6 floors in a building within 30 seconds. I became more aware of their special characteristics through the way they become informed, corroborate data and react to the unexpected.

Astronauts suggest that the world actually has no borders.

First, many of them speak Russian, the working language on board host space shuttles and space stations where several nationalities work together irrespective of their politics. In the future, many young astronauts will probably speak Chinese.

According to Dumitru – Dorin Prunariu, China has invited other nations to work on its international space station, currently being built, to be launched in 2020, and young European astronauts are currently learning Chinese.

Second, all the astronauts say that they see no borders on Earth but a unified world, fragile, covered only by a thin layer of atmosphere, with lots of threats posed by the Universe, and urge people and leaders to look after it and protect it.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   
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