THE FORCE IS FASTER THAN ITS RADIATIONS!
By GUY OBOLENSKY
I have been invited by this Non-Conventional Energy Conference to
demonstrate faster-than-light signaling. Bell's theorem has proven that quantum
mechanics is correct where relativity gives wrong answers.1 Today's
faster-than-light demonstration suggests an explanation. Relativity's hypothesis
of "separation by light speed" fails to consider the space-independent and,
therefore, timeless magnetic-charge quantizing-effect.2
I was searching for a way to make my faster-than-light technology
public, without giving away the shop, when the following appeared in the New
York Times, on December 20, 1978:
Four Celestial Objects Believed Exceeding Speed of Light . . . A
very distant galaxy known as 3C120 has been observed apparently ejecting two
such objects in succession, the first at 5 times light speed and the second at 8
times that speed . . . The conference here was organized by the Max Plank
Heinrich Hertz was the first to confirm that electricity travels
at the speed of light. I will demonstrate the "tachyon structure" in the Hertz
"luminal" signal with the off-shelf equipment that you see on the dais. Today's
demonstration is a fundamental test of the electrification's speed. The
faster-than-light or tachyon-signal component is unmistakable. I will address
its interpretation, implementation and measurement.
The "principle of interferences" and "Madelung's hydrodynamical
interpretation"3 take on new meaning when pilot signals are seen
traveling faster than light and are shown to trigger materialization in a system
far from thermo-dynamic equilibrium.4 In this light, de Broglie's
"theory of the pilot wave", which received the Nobel prize in 1929, provides new
insight into the missing-mass associated with spin-quantization.
An example of "Force Amplification by Stimulated Energy Resonance"
(FASER®) in the domain of mechanics was discussed in the previous
session by my student, and fellow inventor, James F. Murray. Jim has shown, with
a gravitational analogy, how Faser® energy-resonance can be
interpreted as the storing of orthogonal (ortho-) momentum extracted from the
gradient of a force in order to preserve uniform motion in that force's
I will introduce the relativistic Faser® by
describing its Phase Conjugate Resonator (PCR)6 and the "zero-mode"
or "monopole" soliton it creates.7 Commercialized application to
impulse arc-welding and plasma-arc stabilization are reviewed to show how
Faser® creates the "probability pilot-waves". The invisible sea
of energy, bound by our planet's time-field8, will be explained in
relation to the DC to 200 Mhz "Magnetic Bottle" invented by Dr. Nikola Tesla. We
will show how this Tesla-type PCR can cohere the antimatter-electron-couple,
called ortho-positronium,9 which subsequently annihilates coherently
and amplifies the monopole's energy-resonance. Finally, to confirm Tesla's
faster-than-light claim, we show how quantum electronics can cohere the
ambient's excited-states to condense charge, which is then accumulated in a
capacitor to do independent work. At the same time, faster-than-light
communication is possible between the monopole-force-transmitter and its
receivers, unaffected by orientation, distance, or electrical noise!
In Section II of this paper, the mathematical principles of
relativistic acceleration by modulating the shock discharge line's impedence is
introduced by my late associate, Dr. R. P. Shaw, in an unpublished paper titled,
"Theory of Shock Discharge Lines". The original faster-than-light demonstration,
its construction and implementation are described by my patent attorney, Daniel
H. Kane, and excerpted in Section III. Continuity in this 45-year long quest to
understand the Tesla-coil is illustrated biographically.
In 1939, experimental radio was in its heyday. I was ten and had
just acquired a Tesla-designed triple-circuit tuna. Years later, after my
mother's death, I came across the circuit and my description among her papers.
This description suggests a phase-conjugate-resonance force magnifying
Dear Mother, I bought some parts for a radio, a triple circuit
tuner and a diode . . . Something told me that the tuner that I had bought might
help me . . . First I soldered the secondary coil to the primary coil . . . then
I used the tickler coil . . . took off the crystal and it still was going so l
rigged it up in a set . . . I will draw a picture of it . . .
In classical theory, the crystal detector could not be eliminated
because air-core inductors are "linear" and incapable of multiplication.
Nevertheless, by 1941, I was able to replicate the self-magnifying Tesla-coil
for a super-regenerative receiver. Having mastered the basket weaving technique
for low parasitic capacity (which determines the gain of a PCR), the
"efficiency" of my Tesla-coil was extreme. With only a few milliwatts of
stimulation, it band-shifted all the superheterodyne radios in the neighborhood,
interchanging stations WOR and WEAF! After I was caught by the FCC inspectors, I
was forced to take the set apart. For the moment, this ended my interest in
In the late forties, my mentor was Dr. Robert P. Shaw, a
mathematical genius. He was working at the NYU Institute of Mathematics and
Mechanics, on the United States' jet propulsion research program, "Project
Squid". He discovered that macrosonic vortex-toroids carry a virtual shock-wave
in their central-hole. Under Shaw's instruction, I built the apparatus to
reproduce these "ortho-spin" solitons and conducted many of Shaw's original
By the late fifties, I had my own consulting business and was
privately working to perfect an electrical process utilizing energy-resonance to
machine metal by crystal-lattice disintegration. Linear analysis of nonlinear
relationships required building analog computers to correct for
relativistic-scale distortion. This lead to the frequency-chords that stimulate
the soliton's energy-resonance.
In my first experiment with soliton energy-resonance, the magnetic
"wigglers" and dielectric "mirrors" were optimally tuned. Upon firing the gaps
to initiate what was expected to be a normal 7-joule ring-down, the
energy-resonance did not decay; instead, it self-amplified, breaking down the
dielectric. Mode-doubling materialized lightning-like floating sparks that
bounced gently on the work table before "evaporating". FIGURE 1 is an enlarged
section of the wave-guide; it revealed a vaporized dendritic-structure,
featuring well-defined round holes at half-wave intervals. This periodic
structure in the quarter-wave thick pure-aluminum wave-guide suggested that the
ejected plasma would be coherent. The economic implications of using a
relativistic Faser® to produce "critical energy-density" can be
cleaned from the following fact: the missing aluminum's mass, using exploding
wire technology, would have required several hundred thousand joules to have
effected incoherent, normal vaporization!
Dr. Shaw's official shock-wave study during the Eniwetok hydrogen
bomb test program gave him the opportunity to research a well-instrumented
macrosonic shock-field. My neg-entropy demonstration convinced him that such a
relativistic field could be easily reproduced and, once understood, controlled.
I remember his characterization of "punching a hole in the fabric of time with a
near-instantaneous magnetic field". He said that "there should be coherent
triple-convergence in the wake of its shock-waves".
To raise capital and continue the basic research, I formed an
instrument manufacturing company, Bromion Incorporated. Shaw formed the
macrosonic Process Corporation. In 1964, based on our 2-joule, 1-microsecond
prototype, Shaw completed the "Theory of Shock Discharge Lines". The wave-chord
formations, which produce the near-instantaneous magnetic-spin force, are shown
in FIGURE 2. When this soliton wave-packet drives its field-forming solenoid,
the resulting "vector-potential effect"10 ruined my Minerva
chronograph. By chance, a remote "receiver" recorded quantitative information. A
double-coiled stack of 29-inch long clip leads lying in the next room and only
dipped together were found to have been spot-welded by the neg-entropic effect
of the shock-stimulated vector-potential. It is believed the spin-waves, which
are the collective variations of the magnetization vector, cohered noise to
bring into being a self-organizing energy-resonance or soliton. This could
explain the enormous power gain that would have been necessary for the
The unique wading process that arose from our collaboration should
be of particular interest to this Non-Conventional Energy Conference. A soliton
driven welding-arc is magnetically stabilized and condenses "globally" when the
correctly timed pulse kicks the plasma through the energy barrier to a condensed
state. The welding-arc's plasma is already "far from thermodynamic equilibrium";
the reduced entropy arises from cohering the "excess entropy production". This
demonstrates the loophole in the Second-Law of Thermodynamics pointed out by Dr.
Ilya Prigogine, who received the Nobel Prize in 1977. Dr. Prigogine showed how
"excess entropy production" can organize "far from thermodynamic equilibrium"
states of matter and energy, reducing total entropy.
A hydrodynamic analogy may be observed by filling a washtub with
cold water. Take an eye dropper filled with hot, dyed water and release a drop
so that it strikes the center of the tub. A similar hot, colored drop
rematerializes later and is clearly seen jumping back to retrace the path of its
origin. this occurs before the water settles down to its dispersive,
matter-wave, radiations. The dyed drop's initial impact produces a holographic
shock-field whose "pilot waves of probability" determine the future "critical
laminar flow". In effect, the genesis history is stored in "the last shall be
first" time-reversed holograms of the probability-pilot-waves. What Bacon called
the "collective instance" demon strafes the materialization of mathematical law
with the "arrow of time" reversed.11
OSCILLOGRAPHS OF FASER WAVE CONVERGENCE<BR>545 Tek. scope,
Horizontal cal. 100 ns/cm Vertical cal. 1000 v/cm.
Line input is across the capacitor of an impulse excited lank
circuit. Trigger circuits are synchronised with the hydrogen thyrotron impulse
modulator. Multiple exposures were obtained by moving the film pack after
successive impulses. Exposures # 1-3 show that lower order harmonics are already
converging. If can be seen that by the 11th mesh detrimental reflections are
beginning to form, but this energy does not substantially degrade coherence. As
the probe advances down the line additional harmonics are seen 10 converge
forming the coherent energy wave. Double frequency energy modulation, a
characteristic of the input potential has been eliminated. Exposure # 18 shows
the output of the transmission line, terminated in a 10 ohm water cooled carbon
resistor. The Guilleman rise time parameter, with an 18 mesh network, is faster
than our measurement capability.
In 1978, the IEEE <I>Journal of Quantum Electronics</I> published
a review paper titled "Phase Conjugate Optics and Real-Time Holography". The
relative simplicity of the optical modeling of Phase Conjugate Resonance (PCR)
gave me a formality in which to describe FASER® and the
force-magnifying Tesla coil. A PCR can amplify the multi-frequency chords of a
soliton wave-particle because, after any number of round trips, the accumulated
phase error is zero. The PCR is a parametric cavity resonator, bounded by a
normal and conjugate mirror, whose atoms are modulated to serve as a moving
half-wave array. The phase error that is "accumulated" on its way from a normal
to the conjugate mirror is "subtracted" by exactly the same amount on its way
back to the normal mirror.
Three remarkable PCR properties make Faser®
possible. First, the PCR does not possess longitudinal modes that depend on
cavity length. Second, unlike conventional reflectors, the PCR allows for
reflectivities in excess of unity Third, unlike conventional
wave-particle-accelerators, the PCR does not impose a theoretical limit to the
relativistic energydensity. It is a very effective "magnetic bottle".
With sufficient attention devoted to dielectric-stress, the energy
density can be raised to the "critical point" for the spontaneous production of
charge. The higher the voltage, the greater the percentage of gain. When
approaching the critical point, the gain increases so rapidly that it is
imperative to provide an emergency current drain to prevent midcircuit
flashover. Tesla's patents warned that such a dielectric breakdown would
materialize potentially lethal discharges. As demonstrated by my first
experiment with the relativistic Faser®, the entire
energy-resonance is dissipated in the formation of ball-lightning.
A soliton's conjugate energy-resonance couples spin-momentum like
the response of a gyroscope to an unbalancing force. The response is displaced
by a quarter-turn in the space domain, but there is no effect in the
time-domain. The phase conjugate of a wave contains the complex conjugate of
only the space component. Since the time component remains unchanged, without
regard for the number of cycles (round-trips) in the amplifying-medium, the
"arrow of time", which is determined by entropy, can be reversed!
A soliton's informational-pilot-wave can be created electronically
and amplified with a PCR to the critical-energy density. As a direct consequence
of relativistic effects, the waves in the center of this energy-resonance begin
to co here, soften and increase in length. This compresses the waves in the
leading and trailing ends of the soliton's wave packet, and their overall energy
is increased. The natural dispersion effect, which is seen as the speeding up of
these higher energydensity wave-components, causes the trailing end continually
to try and catch up with the leading end. This synergistic process causes the
normal effect of dispersion to be reversed!
I had learned from Dr. R.P. Shaw how to build analog models to
solve intractable problems. The particular set of nested coils objectifies
mathematical law by controlling the impedence of space-time. This allows various
soliton wave-forms to be evaluated. - When the coils are all oriented to the
same plane, they look like the periodic exponential structure in the rings of
Saturn. However, when the skew-angle of each nominally orthogonal setting is
correct, the resulting dynamic impedance structure produces a constant-power
soliton. The current waves that collectively make up the soliton wave-packet.
There are three Faser® designs, covering the low,
medium and relativistic-energy requirements; all employ phase conjugate
resonance. The ferromagnetic Faser® provides a dynamic-impedance
that converts the oscillating-power of ordinary alternating-current (AC) into a
constant-power soliton train. This is of interest to industry presently
requiring direct-current (DC). The DC xenon-arc light comes to mind because
comparable flicker-free low-stress lighting, with a less costly AC metal-arc
bulb, is made possible with Faser® ballasting. The AC metal-arc's
plasma, which is normally nonlinear, becomes unconditionally stable and linear.
By eliminating electrode sputtering, rated life-time dramatically increases, the
bulb puts out more light, and there is less wasted heat.13
The medium power Faser®, is a low voltage, air-core
network. It provides AC-power conditioning for high frequencies. With this
system, soliton welding has been an industrial reality for nearly 24 years.
Bromion's proprietary welding process allows it to weld the exotic thermocouple
alloys used in its true-rms Thermal Watt Converter. In 1979, a contract to
demonstrate this Soliton Welding Process was successfully completed. A.T. Cross
pen company wanted to make a superior fountain pen. This required that a pure
ruthenium ball be waded to a gold alloy nib. In addition to the normal problems
common to impulse welding, pure ruthenium could not be welded to gold because of
a quantum-electric effect. Without Faser®, ballasting, when the
weld area melts, the arc becomes unstable, blows out the interface and ruins the
yeld. With the Faser®, system, a single 4-volt soliton mats the
ruthenium-gold interface and, upon the soliton's collapse, up to 50 volts are
developed. Nearly instantaneous condensation is achieved, producing uniform
diffusion from the gold nib to the ruthenium ball, the gold actually wetting the
ball's entire surface as if driven by a spherical implosion. The Winsted
Precision Ball Corp. supplied the ruthenium balls to A.T. Cross and monitored
the welding project work-order.
Mr. William J. Kelley, General Manager of Winsted, was one of the
few industry representatives who witnessed the demonstration of the
ferromagnetic Faser®, the air-core Faser®, and the
relativistic Faser® system. The demonstration of the relativistic
Faser® in 1977, was organized to test the speed of
spin-waves14 and Dr. Nikola Tesla's faster than-light
claim.15 Tesla said:
"In the system I have devised, only force is conveyed to all parts
of the earth . . . [It] reaches receiver without the slightest dispersion, so
that an incomparably greater amount [of power] is collected than is possible by
radiations . . . The mode of propagating the currents from the transmitter
through the terrestrial globe is most extraordinary, considering the speed of
the electrification of the surface. The [electrification] wave starts with a
theoretically infinite speed, slowing down first very quickly and afterwards at
a lesser rate . . . The mean surface speed is thus about 741,200 kilometers per
The mean surface speed translates into 2½ times light speed.
The resulting shock-wave interference structure, like the Mach-numbers for
matter-waves, announce the monopole's virtual-force. It progressively jumps back
to light speed, exchanging linear momentum for "ortho-spin" (orthagonal
momentum); this localizes the radiation's energy-density and "precipitates free
charge". Tesla's insight was so advanced that physical science has arrived only
recently at an understanding of his spin-wave magnifying-transformer.
Tesla's many writings led me to believe that he considered the
electron's charge analogous to the charge on the earth. For example, this
planet's charge is macro-quantized by the coupling to spin through the agency of
its magnetic force. The characteristic impedance of the monopole-wave-guide
comprising the earth's spherical surface and its radiation absorbing ionosphere
is 377 , which is 120 or sixty revolutions. The SO microsecond spark structure
of lightning appears to be relativistically dialated muon decay;16 it
exemplifies coherence 500 times longer than the half-life of ortho-positronium.
This bound-state positron provides fine-grained energy-structure in the earth's
From this "sea of energy", Tesla's magnifying transformer was able
to condense charge, do useful work, and later, retrace the initializing impulse
backwards. This is analogous to the colored, hot-water drop and tub
demonstration. Because of the extremely long range coherence made practicable
with PCR, the incoming and outgoing electric current tides could be cohered,
thus allowing Tesla to use clockwork commutators to rectify the earth's
sub-audio Schumann resonance.17 When the inductor's geometry, and
wire coefficients are optimized for effective conjugate-resonance, an
"anti-matter magnetic-bottle", whose band width extends from DC to 200 Mhz,
effectively localizes the charge liberated by "virtual ball-lightning". This
allows "harvesting the free charge". There is conclusive evidence that Tesla
actually succeeded in turning this 21st century Buck Rogers principle into
viable hardware before the nineteenth century closed.
The results of my numerous experiments are interpreted in the
light of Dr. Shaw's macrosonic soliton discoveries. By properly scaling the
forces, one can understand quantized structure in the or/ho-spin/velocity
quantization. For example, the disparity in conjugate spins increased the
coupling-constant's force so that Mach-number speed jumps require "global"
changes in the "or/ho-spin's" angular-momentum. My electromagnetic, zero-mode,
energy-resonance could be amplified to the magnetic monopole's equivalent mass.
Its decay would be associated with the observed time and space, ordered, virtual
shock-field. This could account for the spontaneous charge production and
vector-potential effects that have been reported by so many "free energy"
In 1975, Bouford and Pinsky, at Berkeley and Houston Universities
respectively, reported finding a monopole with a mass greater than 200 protons
in cosmic rays.18 Current theory predicts that the mass-equivalent
energy will be on the order of 10 trillion volts! The energy-density of the
monopole-soliton's mass-equivalent (Z) only needs to be greater than the fine
structure constant of 137, in order for the enhanced gravity of the
nuclear-force to liberate charge from the negative energy continuum. The
electromagnetic soliton's extended coherence length determines its relativistic
mass-energy; like a black hole19, its time-dialation can "spark the
vacuum"20 and liberate charge coherently.
This monopole phenomenon is based on the fact that energy-resonant
states change abruptly, quantizing exchange energy in a photon with both spin
and charge components. J.J. Thompson showed21 that the angular
momentum of an electromagnetic couple is proportional to the product of magnetic
and electric charges. However, unlike the reciprocal force of electric charge,
the force of magnetic charge is undiminished by distance!
On the one hand, when an electric charge is accelerated close to
the speed of light, it takes on the properties of magnetic charge. On the other
hand, when a magnetic charge is slowed down close to light speed, it takes on
the properties of electric charge. Theory says that magnetic charge should be
nearly 100 times as strong as electric charge; consequently, the monopole's
ionizing effect per-charge-unit should be 10,000-times greater.
In "The Dynamics of Space Time," John A. Wheeler describes how the
gravitational force of over-critical nuclear mass creates a nonlinear and
multiple-connected space-time.22 The monopole-soliton's
mass-equivalent energy can become overcritical due to the cumulative effect of
an unrestricted coherence-length. In reference to today's faster-than-light
demonstration, it is also suggested that the vector-potential's effect is a
quantized, nonlinear function of the magnetic field's rate of change and, the
magnetic impulse's informational pilot-wave would not be attenuated by distance,
nor effected by local-time reversal.
A distinction must be made between the convention of local-time
that is alterable and the direction of spin-coupling for the north, south, and
neutral monopoles. Local time-reversal may be affected by changing the direction
of the spiral turns in an inductor without changing the magnetizing current.
However, this entropy related time does not re verse a monopole's clock; its
time is the absolute reference from which tachionic pilot-waves influence its
future. The point is made clear by Robert K. Adair of Yale University, in a
well-circulated "gedanken" experiment:
When a proton moves through a magnetic field, it follows a curved
path. In one case the magnetic force may be produced by supplying current to a
solenoid. The effect of reversing time would be to reverse the motion of protons
and electrons, conjointly. Thus, the electrons that would make up the
magnetizing current must also be reversed. Under such circumstance the proton
will simply retrace its original path, but in the opposite direction; the path
of the proton is said to be invariant with respect to time reversal. Suppose the
magnetic field arises not from an electric current but from the presence of a
magnetic monopole. The proton will still reverse direction, according to the
polarity of the monopole, but it no longer is bound to retrace the original
path. In short, the proton's path in the magnetic field of a monopole depends on
In summation: The monopole's spin-quantizing force does not obey
the inverse cube power-law of the electromagnetic field. The effect on electric
charge by quantizing a magnetic monopole's angular-momentum is not diminished,
despite the most extended coherence length. Repeated experimentation suggests
that this magnetic, charge-cohering "informational-force" is also faster than
the speed of light in a vacuum!
The superluminal soliton's "ortho-spin" produces coherent
Cherenkov radiations because its force-field is coherent in both space and time.
This would allow spontaneous charge to be withdrawn from a magnifying PCR
(magnetic bottle). After doing useful work, the charge can be returned with the
polarity reversed in a periodic sequence that survives the fatal Second Law of
In our experiment, the periodic spin-quantization appeared as the
separations between 10-meter layers of a giant "onion", with the hypothetical
magnetic-monopole-soliton at the nucleus. Within the space of approximately one
foot, the phase-shift and attenuation suddenly became too compressed to resolve.
These "end zones" appeared at twice light speed for the frequency detected. When
the Magnifying Transmitter's aerial-terminal intersects the virtual force-field,
charge accumulates in the PCR's primary capacity. The anomalous charge-effects
were a very important part of the 1977 relativistic Faser®
Our ten-meter Tesla-type accelerator produced spin-wave structure
small enough to investigate within our 70-foot building. It was powered by a
Tektronix 40 Mhz function generator that supplied about 5 volt amperes. The
power dissipation was insignificant Everywhere we probed, the detected signal
was identical, without apparent time shift or attenuation with distance. The
detector consisted of a geometrically tuned 15 cm solenoid, completely enclosed
by a grounded 25 cm cookie tin which could be oriented in mutually orthagonal
planes. Every plane registered the same amplitude and phase; thus, the radiation
was shown to be isotropic.
The receiving system was mounted on an instrument carriage that
contained a battery powered amplifier and lasing-diode for a fiber-optic signal
return. This eliminated evanescent-wave conduction, and it isolated the receiver
carriage when the connection to earth ground was opened. The charge that
accumulated on the cookie tin ended reception whenever the grounding wire was
removed. (This effect is noteworthy because it is connected with the Tesla
gravitational experiments that involved stimulating a specific energy-resonance
in a strong electric gradient.) The receiving equipment carriage could be rolled
away from the "Force Magnifying Transmitter" in order to plot, as a function of
distance, the detected phase and amplitude. There was neither phase shift nor
attenuation, except in a discrete zone less than 30 cm wide. Here, the very
rapid phase shift and attenuation were not resolvable because the receiver was
of a similar size. After passing this first end-zone, the signal was seen to
resume its normal amplitude and phase. Thereafter, the signal remained constant
to the end of the laboratory, where a second end-zone began.
Today's elementary demonstration is easily reproducible. The
instrumentation is common, requiring two identical UHF current transformers ( 1
Ghz bandwidth) and a 400 Mhz dual beam scope. The 3 GeV. per second ( 15 V. in 5
ns), parabolic rise and decay pulse generator allows adequate resolution, and it
controls Gibbs-dispersion to form a single impulse. Finally, our six meter
circular-loop wave-guide has a ground plane running down its center to isolate
the launching and receiving current transformers from spurious artifact.
The Electro-Magnetic-Pulse (EMP) that is launched into one end of
the wire loop is compared with its pilot-wave and "luminal" signals, which
arrive at the opposite end of the loop. We measure the current being launched
and the current being received. As one might expect, the wire wave-guide slows
down the luminal part of the EMP. However, you can plainly see that a near
instantaneous current signal is present before the arrival of the EMP. With a
similar, but much larger loop and better instrumentation, the velocity-structure
of the EMP's pilot-wave can be quantitatively investigated. For now, it has been
demonstrated publicly that the force is faster than its radiations.
1. B. d'/Espagnat, "The Quantum Theory ant Reality," SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN, November 1979, pp. 158-181.
2. R. A. Carrigan, Jr. and W. P. Trower, "Superheavy Magnetic
Monopoles," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, April 1982.
3. L. De Broglie, <I>Physics and Microphysics,</I> Pantheon Books,
4. I. Prigogine, G. Nicolis and A. Babloyantz, "Thermodynamics of
Evolution," PHYSICS TODAY, November 1972, p. 23.
5. N. A. Kozyrev, "Possibility of Experimental Study of the
Properties of Time", Russian, May 1968.
6. C. R. Giuliano, "Applications of Optical Phase Conjugation,"
PHYSICS TODAY, April 1981.
7. C. Rebbi, "Solitons," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, February 1977, p.
8. P. S. Wesson, "Does Gravity Change With Time?," PHYSICS TODAY,
July 1980, p. 32.
9. Sir H. Massey, "Slow Positrons in Oases," PHYSICS TODAY, March
1976, p. 42.
10. J. D. Jackson, "Classical Electrodynamics," John Wiley and
Sons, Inc. New York (1962), p. 408.
11. D. Layzer, "The Arrow of Time," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, December
12. A. Yariv, "Phase Conjugate Optics," IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM
ELECTRONICS QE14, 650 (1978).
13. T. M. Lemons, FIES, and A. G. Obolensky, "Improved Operation
of HID Lamps," LIGHTING DESIGN & APPLICATION, January 1978.
14. "Search and Discovery," PHYSICS TODAY, June 1957, page 56.
15. Dr. N. Tesla, "World System of Wireless Transmission of
Energy," TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE AGE, October 16. 1927.
16. M. L. Perl, "How Does the Muon Differ From the Electron,"
PHYSICS TODAY, July 1971.
17. V. I. Ivanov and S. Ledomskaya, "Effect Of ions on the
Propagation Characteristics of VLF Radio Waves and On the Characteristics of
Schumann Resonance," Institute of Physics, Leningrad State University,
Leningrad, U.S.S.R., U.S. Copyright Clearance Center Code: 0016-7932-82-2102,
18. PHYSICS TODAY, October 1975, page 17.
19. J. D. Bekenstein, "Black-Hole Thermodynamics," PHYSICS TODAY,
20. J. S. Greenberg and W. Greiner, "Searching for the Sparking of
the Vacuum," PHYSICS TODAY, August 1982.
21. J. J. Thompson, "The Cathode Rays," PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE,
5th series, 44 (October, 1897), page 312.
22. J. A. Wheeler, "The Dynamics of Space-Time," INTERNATIONAL
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, December 1963, page 62.
23. R. A. Carrigan, Jr. and W. P. Trower, "Superheavy Magnetic
Monopoles," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, April 1982, we 108.