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Author Topic: hhop  (Read 149524 times)

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Time

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time

Time is a measure in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, and also the measure of durations of events and the intervals between them.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] Time is often referred to as the fourth dimension, along with the three spatial dimensions.[8]

Time has long been a major subject of study in religion, philosophy, and science, but defining it in a manner applicable to all fields without circularity has consistently eluded scholars.[2][6][7][9][10][11] Nevertheless, diverse fields such as business, industry, sports, the sciences, and the performing arts all incorporate some notion of time into their respective measuring systems.[12][13][14] Some simple definitions of time include "time is what clocks measure",[6][15] which is a problematically vague and self-referential definition that utilizes the device used to measure the subject as the definition of the subject, and "time is what keeps everything from happening at once", which is without substantive meaning in the absence of the definition of simultaneity in the context of the limitations of human sensation, observation of events, and the perception of such events.[16][17][18][19]

Two contrasting viewpoints on time divide many prominent philosophers. One view is that time is part of the fundamental structure of the universe—a dimension independent of events, in which events occur in sequence. Sir Isaac Newton subscribed to this realist view, and hence it is sometimes referred to as Newtonian time.[20][21] The opposing view is that time does not refer to any kind of "container" that events and objects "move through", nor to any entity that "flows", but that it is instead part of a fundamental intellectual structure (together with space and number) within which humans sequence and compare events. This second view, in the tradition of Gottfried Leibniz[15] and Immanuel Kant,[22][23] holds that time is neither an event nor a thing, and thus is not itself measurable nor can it be travelled.

Time is one of the seven fundamental physical quantities in both the International System of Units and International System of Quantities. Time is used to define other quantities—such as velocity—so defining time in terms of such quantities would result in circularity of definition.[24] An operational definition of time, wherein one says that observing a certain number of repetitions of one or another standard cyclical event (such as the passage of a free-swinging pendulum) constitutes one standard unit such as the second, is highly useful in the conduct of both advanced experiments and everyday affairs of life. The operational definition leaves aside the question whether there is something called time, apart from the counting activity just mentioned, that flows and that can be measured. Investigations of a single continuum called spacetime bring questions about space into questions about time, questions that have their roots in the works of early students of natural philosophy.

Furthermore, it may be that there is a subjective component to time, but whether or not time itself is "felt", as a sensation, or is a judgment, is a matter of debate.[2][6][7][25][26]

Temporal measurement has occupied scientists and technologists, and was a prime motivation in navigation and astronomy. Periodic events and periodic motion have long served as standards for units of time. Examples include the apparent motion of the sun across the sky, the phases of the moon, the swing of a pendulum, and the beat of a heart. Currently, the international unit of time, the second, is defined by measuring the electronic transition frequency of caesium atoms (see below). Time is also of significant social importance, having economic value ("time is money") as well as personal value, due to an awareness of the limited time in each day and in human life spans.

Three-dimensional space (mathematics)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-dimensional_space_%28mathematics%29

Three-dimensional space (also: tri-dimensional space) is a geometric three-parameter model of the physical universe (without considering time) in which all known matter exists. These three dimensions can be labeled by a combination of three chosen from the terms length, width, height, depth, and breadth. Any three directions can be chosen, provided that they do not all lie in the same plane.

In physics and mathematics, a sequence of n numbers can be understood as a location in n-dimensional space. When n = 3, the set of all such locations is called three-dimensional Euclidean space. This space is only one example of a great variety of spaces in three dimensions called 3-manifolds.

Coordinate system

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinate_system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of a point or other geometric element on a manifold such as Euclidean space.[1][2] The order of the coordinates is significant and they are sometimes identified by their position in an ordered tuple and sometimes by a letter, as in "the x-coordinate". The coordinates are taken to be real numbers in elementary mathematics, but may be complex numbers or elements of a more abstract system such as a commutative ring. The use of a coordinate system allows problems in geometry to be translated into problems about numbers and vice versa; this is the basis of analytic geometry.[3]


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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hhop gen 4 + Lord Kelvin's water dropper

http://www.overunityresearch.com/index.php?topic=2288.msg52861#msg52861

Kelvin water dropper

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelvin_water_dropper

The Kelvin water dropper, invented by British scientist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in 1867,[1] is a type of electrostatic generator. Kelvin referred to the device as his water-dropping condenser. The apparatus is variously called the Kelvin hydroelectric generator, the Kelvin electrostatic generator, or Lord Kelvin's thunderstorm. The device uses falling water to generate voltage differences by electrostatic induction occurring between interconnected, oppositely charged systems. Its only use has been in physics education to demonstrate the principles of electrostatics.


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Acceleration

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acceleration#Tangential_and_centripetal_acceleration

Acceleration, in physics, is the rate of change of velocity of an object. An object's acceleration is the net result of any and all forces acting on the object, as described by Newton's Second Law.[1] The SI unit for acceleration is metre per second squared (m/s2). Accelerations are vector quantities (they have magnitude and direction) and add according to the parallelogram law.[2][3] As a vector, the calculated net force is equal to the product of the object's mass (a scalar quantity) and the acceleration.

For example, when a car starts from a standstill (zero relative velocity) and travels in a straight line at increasing speeds, it is accelerating in the direction of travel. If the car turns there is an acceleration toward the new direction. For this example, we can call the accelerating of the car forward a "linear acceleration", which passengers in the car might experience as force pushing them back into their seats. When changing directions, we might call this "non-linear acceleration", which passengers might experience as a sideways force. If the speed of the car decreases, this is an acceleration in the opposite direction of the direction of the vehicle, sometimes called deceleration.[4] Passengers may experience deceleration as a force lifting them away from their seats. Mathematically, there is no separate formula for deceleration, as both are changes in velocity. Each of these accelerations (linear, non-linear, deceleration) might be felt by passengers until their velocity (speed and direction) match that of the car.

Relation to relativity

Special relativity

The special theory of relativity describes the behavior of objects traveling relative to other objects at speeds approaching that of light in a vacuum. Newtonian mechanics is exactly revealed to be an approximation to reality, valid to great accuracy at lower speeds. As the relevant speeds increase toward the speed of light, acceleration no longer follows classical equations.

As speeds approach that of light, the acceleration produced by a given force decreases, becoming infinitesimally small as light speed is approached; an object with mass can approach this speed asymptotically, but never reach it.

General relativity

Unless the state of motion of an object is known, it is totally impossible to distinguish whether an observed force is due to gravity or to acceleration—gravity and inertial acceleration have identical effects. Albert Einstein called this the principle of equivalence, and said that only observers who feel no force at all—including the force of gravity—are justified in concluding that they are not accelerating.[10]


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Fiction ?

http://glennclovis.deviantart.com/art/Spec-Sheet-Stanford-Torus-335141092

hhop gen 5 is intended to enable Everyman to explore space together, forever.

In ISS orbit (space) a hhop gen 5 station could be built, simulating 1G force.

hhop gen 3 and 4 convert gravitational force potential into electrical energy surplus (COP>1), hhop gen 3 also electrolytically process's fluids.

hhop gen 5 is spacial rotation moment based and can be layered upon mass based gravitational models (equivalence principal), this creates a gravitational force gradient range of 0G (COG) to 1G (Boundary)


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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hhop gen 5
« Last Edit: 2016-03-06, 20:02:05 by evolvingape »


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Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Energy density

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_density

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or mass, though the latter is more accurately termed specific energy. Often only the useful or extractable energy is measured, which is to say that chemically inaccessible energy such as rest mass energy is ignored.[1] In cosmological and other general relativistic contexts, however, the energy densities considered are those that correspond to the elements of the stress–energy tensor and therefore do include mass energy as well as energy densities associated with the pressures described in the next paragraph.

Energy per unit volume has the same physical units as pressure, and in many circumstances is a synonym: for example, the energy density of a magnetic field may be expressed as (and behaves as) a physical pressure, and the energy required to compress a compressed gas a little more may be determined by multiplying the difference between the gas pressure and the external pressure by the change in volume. In short, pressure is a measure of the enthalpy per unit volume of a system. A pressure gradient has a potential to perform work on the surroundings by converting enthalpy until equilibrium is reached.

Specific energy

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specific_energy

Specific energy is energy per unit mass. (It is also sometimes called "energy density," though "energy density" more precisely means energy per unit volume.) It is used to quantify, for example, stored heat or other thermodynamic properties of substances such as specific internal energy, specific enthalpy, specific Gibbs free energy, and specific Helmholtz free energy. It may also be used for the kinetic energy or potential energy of a body. Specific energy is an intensive property, whereas energy and mass are extensive properties.

Intensive and extensive properties

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intensive_and_extensive_properties

Physical properties of materials and systems can often be categorized as being either intensive or extensive quantities, according to how the property changes when the size (or extent) of the system changes. According to IUPAC, an intensive property is one whose magnitude is independent of the size of the system. An extensive property is one whose magnitude is additive for subsystems.[1]

An intensive property is a bulk property, meaning that it is a physical property of a system that does not depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system. Examples of intensive properties include temperature, T, refractive index, n, density, ρ, and hardness of an object, η (IUPAC symbols[1] are used throughout this article). When a diamond is cut, the pieces maintain their intrinsic hardness (until their size reaches a few atoms thick), so hardness is independent of the size of the system.

By contrast, an extensive property is additive for subsystems.[2] This means the system could be divided into any number of subsystems, and the extensive property measured for each subsystem; the value of the property for the system would be the sum of the property for each subsystem. For example, both the mass, m, and the volume, V, of a diamond are directly proportional to the amount that is left after cutting it from the raw mineral. Mass and volume are extensive properties, but hardness is intensive.

The ratio of two extensive properties of the same object or system is an intensive property. For example, the ratio of an object's mass and volume, which are two extensive properties, is density, which is an intensive property.[3]

The terms intensive and extensive quantities were introduced by Richard C. Tolman in 1917.[4]


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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hhop gen 3

End stops control valve timing in hhop gen 3.

hhop gen 4 has a single valve in the bottom face of the piston, controlled by end stops.

When the valve is closed the liquid inside the hollow piston reservoir is seen simply as a system weight and does work on the hydraulic system below it. (gravitational potential vector field prime mover energy)

The hydraulic chamber below it is enclosed from the environment and therefore has only the tiny bore outlet pipe to reach pressure equalisation (scalar field).

The piston reaches end of travel at the bottom of the system reservoir and the weight opens the valve.

The two separate water chamber's (two scalar fields not in contact) are now one scalar field with a narrow hydraulic bridge.

The piston is buoyant and ascends gaining kinetic energy and momentum as it does so. When it hits top stop the valve is closed and the system sees two scalar fields once again.. and the piston gets heavy  O0
« Last Edit: 2016-01-28, 20:47:27 by evolvingape »


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Raised weight

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_accumulator

A raised weight accumulator consists of a vertical cylinder containing fluid connected to the hydraulic line. The cylinder is closed by a piston on which a series of weights are placed that exert a downward force on the piston and thereby energizes the fluid in the cylinder. In contrast to compressed gas and spring accumulators, this type delivers a nearly constant pressure, regardless of the volume of fluid in the cylinder, until it is empty. (The pressure will decline somewhat as the cylinder is emptied due to the decline in weight of the remaining fluid.)


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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hhop gen 4


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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hhop gen 4 Specific Gravity Field switch O0
« Last Edit: 2016-02-02, 18:13:27 by evolvingape »


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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A demonstration around a year ago of a snapvalve governor ejector/injector hhop gen 2 cell.

Substitution of the snapvalve governor with a standard PRV (pressure relief valve) will cause the cell pressure to hunt around cracking pressure, and pressurise the electrolyte liquid working fluid.

A slow controlled continuous bleed, as opposed to the rapid delayed action of the snapvalve.

The snapvalve allows a volume of liquid to be pump displaced by the increasing gas pressure, before the gas is ejected/injected rapidly and the valve closes.

hho is moved at high velocity from high to low pressure, without ignition at 6 bar (90 psi ish)  8)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B5CvlEwxFhg&feature=youtu.be

skip to 07:15 for valve operation event :)


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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hhop gen 4 updated drawing showing the boundary plane o-ring seal and the two working fluids, gas and liquid.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Curing Cancer with Carrots

http://curingcancerwithcarrots.com/

Ann Cameron was diagnosed with stage 4 colon cancer.

After using traditional treatment, she was diagnosed with a secondaries in her lungs.

She used carrot juice as a remedy and has been cancer free since 2013.

https://soundcloud.com/abc-sunshine-coast/author-ann-cameron-on-carrots-and-cancer

Author Ann Cameron cured her stage 4 cancer with carrot juice, nothing else.

http://www.chrisbeatcancer.com/ann-cameron-cured-her-cancer-with-carrot-juice/

Cold Pressed Juicing Technology

http://www.thearange.co.uk/products/juica-cold-press-juicer/

Cold pressed juicing technology operates via a slow, compressing method to produce high quality juice from each fruit and vegetable. The pressing screw crushes, then compresses and squeezes out of the juice, similar to hand pressed juice.

There are no fast-spinning blades that shred and pulverize the fruits and vegetables to produce juice. The friction from high spinning centrifugal blades create heat and break open the cell walls of the produce exposing to oxygen and reducing nutrients. This causes oxidation to occur rapidly which is why often fruit and vegetable juice from these types of units is a totally different colour and texture. The juice also separates very quickly from these centrifugal units whereas the juice from Juica has very little separation. The cold press method generates more vitamin-dense, richer-coloured juice than a centrifugal juicer.


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Carrot's sound like a good idea  O0

The hhop gen 2 hybrid fit's the bill as a low power water pump, fuel producer and food processor.

Now we need a food processor attachment on the water pump outlet (large diameter hydraulic piston press), and to think about our radius / height / volume / pressure relationships for both fluids. (gas / air and liquid / water)

Should be fun!  ;D

http://www.ukjuicers.com/juicers/fruit-and-vegetable-juicers/masticating-juicers/cold-press-juicers


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Do You Know the Difference Between a Centrifugal and a Cold Press Juicer?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-90B46sNfz0

The A range cold press juicer was on sale at Argos, picked one up this evening and the results are good!

There is still a lot of liquid left in the pulp so not very efficient, which makes it a perfect opportunity to apply a stainless high pressure press and see how much extra juice we can extract.

The more juice you can extract the lower your ongoing raw material costs will be..  O0

The central spindle is a metal hex lock so hopefully will not suffer the same problems as it's rivals (according to some reviews), and it was very quiet, quick.. easy to clean (minimal parts).

Leftover dry pulp for the compost bin.. for £100 you get the motor, screw press and separator.. can we do the hhop press for less (£ and electricity).. and produce more juice ?

Seems like a fair challenge.. I wonder what working psi we can take the hhopress up to ?

Don't forget your safety burst discs!


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Next stop, Lunar City: 3D-printed space pods to form permanent ‘moon village’

https://www.rt.com/news/333842-moon-village-domes-space/

Looks like a hhop house on the Moon to me!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E-lq2ErdlXY

On Earth there is no need for the soil berm and so we can have a greenhouse garden on the surface, house underground.. like a hobbit.. 8)

hhop gen 4 at the core providing basic backup electricity, hhop gen 3 managing fluids pressure to the hydraulic and liquid / gas processing system.

Mass based Gravity within a Specific Gravity Field is the energy source, and on the Moon will be less Force than on Earth, but constant..


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Density and its uses

http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/pre/pre-2.html

Dolphin and diver engage in a graceful dance while supported by the weight of the water they displace.

The density of an object is one of its most important and easily-measured physical properties. Densities are widely used to identify pure substances and to characterize and estimate the composition of many kinds of mixtures.

The purpose of this lesson is to show how densities are defined, measured, and utilized, and to make sure you understand the closely-related concepts of buoyancy and specific gravity, and the roles they play in our lives and the environment.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

Group: Moderator
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Posts: 2578
Everyman decries immorality


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

Group: Moderator
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Posts: 2578
Everyman decries immorality
Archimedes

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archimedes

Archimedes of Syracuse (/ˌɑːkɪˈmiːdiːz/;[1] Greek: Ἀρχιμήδης; c. 287 BC – c. 212 BC) was an Ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.[2] Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Generally considered the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time,[3][4] Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying concepts of infinitesimals and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems, including the area of a circle, the surface area and volume of a sphere, and the area under a parabola.[5]

Other mathematical achievements include deriving an accurate approximation of pi, defining and investigating the spiral bearing his name, and creating a system using exponentiation for expressing very large numbers. He was also one of the first to apply mathematics to physical phenomena, founding hydrostatics and statics, including an explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, such as his screw pump, compound pulleys, and defensive war machines to protect his native Syracuse from invasion.

Archimedes died during the Siege of Syracuse when he was killed by a Roman soldier despite orders that he should not be harmed. Cicero describes visiting the tomb of Archimedes, which was surmounted by a sphere and a cylinder, which Archimedes had requested to be placed on his tomb, representing his mathematical discoveries.

Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. Mathematicians from Alexandria read and quoted him, but the first comprehensive compilation was not made until c. 530 AD by Isidore of Miletus in Byzantine Constantinople, while commentaries on the works of Archimedes written by Eutocius in the sixth century AD opened them to wider readership for the first time. The relatively few copies of Archimedes' written work that survived through the Middle Ages were an influential source of ideas for scientists during the Renaissance,[6] while the discovery in 1906 of previously unknown works by Archimedes in the Archimedes Palimpsest has provided new insights into how he obtained mathematical results.[7]


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Ballast tank

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballast_tank

A ballast tank is a compartment within a boat, ship or other floating structure that holds water, which is used as ballast to provide stability for a vessel. Using water in a tank allows for easier adjustment of weight than stone or iron ballast as was used in older vessels. It also allows for ballast to be pumped out to temporarily reduce the draft of the vessel when required to enter shallower water.

History

The basic concept behind the ballast tank can be seen in many forms of aquatic life, such as the blowfish or argonaut octopus,[1] and the concept has been invented and reinvented many times by humans to serve a variety of purposes. For example, in 1849 Abraham Lincoln, then an Illinois attorney, patented a ballast-tank system to enable cargo vessels to pass over shoals in North American rivers.

Ships

In order to provide adequate stability to vessels at sea, ballast is used to weigh the ship down and lower its centre of gravity. International agreements under the Safety Of Life At Sea (SOLAS) Convention require cargo vessels and passenger ships to be constructed so as to withstand certain kinds of damage. The criteria specify the separation of compartments within the vessel and also the subdivision of those compartments. The International agreements rely upon the states which have signed the agreement to implement the regulations within their waters and on vessels which are entitled to fly their flag. The ballast is generally seawater which is pumped into tanks known as ballast tanks. Depending on the type of vessel, the tanks can be double bottom (extending across the breadth of the vessel), wing tanks (located on the outboard area from keel to deck) or hopper tanks (occupying the upper corner section between hull and main deck). These ballast tanks are connected to pumps which can pump water in or out. These tanks are filled in order to add weight to the ship once cargo has been discharged, and improve its stability. In some extreme conditions, ballast water may be introduced to dedicated cargo spaces in order to add extra weight during heavy weather or to pass under low bridges.

Submarines

In submersibles and submarines, ballast tanks are used to control the buoyancy of the vessel.

Some submersibles, such as bathyscaphes, dive and re-surface solely by controlling their buoyancy. They flood ballast tanks to submerge, then to re-surface either drop discardable ballast weights, or used stored compressed air to blow their ballast tanks clear of water, becoming buoyant again.

Submarines are larger, more sophisticated and have powerful underwater propulsion. They must travel horizontal distances submerged, require precise control of depth, yet do not descend so deeply, nor need to diver vertically on station. Their primary means of controlling depth are thus their diving planes, in combination with forward motion. At the surface the ballast tanks are emptied to give positive buoyancy. When diving, the tanks are partially flooded to achieve neutral buoyancy. The planes are then adjusted together to drive the hull downwards, whilst still level. For a steeper dive, the stern planes may be reversed and used to pitch the hull downwards.

Submerging is done by opening the vents in the top of the ballast tanks, as well as opening the valves in the bottom. This allows water to flooding into the tank, and allows the air already present inside the tank to escape through the top vents. as the air escapes from the tank, the vessel's buoyancy decreases, thus causing it to sink. In order for the submarine to surface, the vents in the top of the ballast tanks are shut, and compressed air is allowed into the tanks. The high-pressure air pocket pushes the water out through the bottom valves and increases the vessel's buoyancy, causing it to rise. A submarine may have several types of ballast tank: the main ballast tanks, which are the main tanks used for diving and surfacing, and trimming tanks, which are used to adjust the submarine's attitude (its 'trim') both on the surface and when underwater.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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hhop gen 4 update 2

The hydraulic system cannot tell the difference between a force from a solid acting on the piston face, and the same weight of liquid contained within a solid.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Apparent weight

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apparent_weight

In physics, apparent weight is a property of objects that corresponds to how heavy an object is. The apparent weight of an object will differ from the weight of an object whenever the force of gravity acting on the object is not balanced by an equal but opposite normal force. By definition, the weight of an object is equal to the magnitude of the force of gravity acting on it. This means that even a "weightless" astronaut in low Earth orbit has almost the same weight as he would have while standing on the ground.

An object that rests on the ground is subject to a normal force exerted by the ground. The normal force acts only on the boundary of the object that is in contact with the ground. This force is transferred into the body; the force of gravity on every part of the body is balanced by stress forces acting on that part. A "weightless" astronaut feels weightless due to the absence of these stress forces. By defining the apparent weight of an object in terms of normal forces, one can capture this effect of the stress forces. A common definition is "the force the body exerts on whatever it rests on."[1]

The apparent weight can also differ from weight when an object is "partially or completely immersed in a fluid", where there is an "upthrust" from the liquid that is working against the force of gravity.[2] Another example is the weight of an object or person riding in an elevator. When the elevator begins rising, the object begins exerting a force in the downward direction. If a scale was used, it would be seen that the weight of the object is becoming heavier because of the downward force, changing the apparent weight.[3]

The role of apparent weight is also important in fluidization, when dealing with a number of particles, as it is the amount of force that the "upward drag force" needs to overcome in order for the particles to rise and for fluidization to occur.[4]

System

A system is a set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex/intricate whole.[1] Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning.

The term system may also refer to a set of rules that governs structure and/or behavior. Alternatively, and usually in the context of complex social systems, the term is used to describe the set of rules that govern structure and/or behavior.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

Group: Moderator
Hero Member
*****

Posts: 2578
Everyman decries immorality
hhop gen 4 update 3
« Last Edit: 2016-03-08, 21:46:31 by evolvingape »


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

Group: Moderator
Hero Member
*****

Posts: 2578
Everyman decries immorality
hhop gen 4 update 4


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   
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