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Mythbuster 2004 Ping Pong Salvage

https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=mythbusters+raise+boat

51% efficiency for ping pong balls, monocoque solid spheres filled with gas air internally.. hhop gen 3 is 100% efficient in liquid displacement per unit gas hho space volume  8)


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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To Infinity: How NASA envisioned life aboard giant spaceships back in 1970s (PICTURES)

https://www.rt.com/viral/336799-nasa-space-colony-future/

Ever wondered what life would be like for humans on a space colony? Well NASA certainly did back in the 1970s - and it turns out they were rather optimistic.

With the help of Princeton physicist Gerard O’Neill, NASA’s Ames Research Center and Stanford University conducted three space colony summer studies back in the day and came up with some imaginative renderings of brave new worlds.

The project resulted in a series of incredible artistic impressions of communities thriving in man-made mega civilizations.

The key word in all of this: cylindrical. Vast, lush organic habitations, resembling a giant Kibbutz, are created inside space stations of epic proportions, the cylindrical arms of which support green, vibrant and surprisingly earth-like environments.

There are lakes, forests, parks, mountains, crop fields, clouds, traditional suburban neighborhoods, churches and towns. If the pictures are anything to go by, picnics and barbeques are de rigour for the 10,000 inhabitants who, it was envisioned, would move there.

A major part of this post-Apollo program dream was the deployment and use of numerous, massive satellites to help support these space communities. Many of these pictures first appeared in O’Neill’s book The High Frontier: Human Colonies in Space from 1976.

Of course some 40 years on from these images being produced, we are not much closer to creating these utopian space societies.

If the 1968 masterpiece 2001: A Space Odyssey was thinking big, it’s fair to say we’ve adjusted our expectations since. Even Matt Damon in 2015’s The Martian didn’t get to enjoy much luxury on the Red Planet. He grew potatoes using the poo of astronauts as fertilizer.

O0


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Everyman decries immorality
Conservative vector field

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservative_vector_field

In vector calculus a conservative vector field is a vector field that is the gradient of some function, known in this context as a scalar potential.[1] Conservative vector fields have the property that the line integral is path independent, i.e. the choice of integration path between any point and another does not change the result. Path independence of a line integral is equivalent to the vector field being conservative. A conservative vector field is also irrotational; in three dimensions this means that it has vanishing curl. An irrotational vector field is necessarily conservative provided that the domain is simply connected.

Conservative vector fields appear naturally in mechanics: they are vector fields representing forces of physical systems in which energy is conserved.[2] For a conservative system, the work done in moving along a path in configuration space depends only on the endpoints of the path, so it is possible to define a potential energy independently of the path taken.

State of matter

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_of_matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms that matter takes on. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Many other states are known to exist only in extreme situations, such as Bose–Einstein condensates, neutron-degenerate matter and quark-gluon plasma, which occur in situations of extreme cold, extreme density and extremely high-energy color-charged matter respectively. Some other states are believed to be possible but remain theoretical for now. For a complete list of all exotic states of matter, see the list of states of matter.

Historically, the distinction is made based on qualitative differences in properties. Matter in the solid state maintains a fixed volume and shape, with component particles (atoms, molecules or ions) close together and fixed into place. Matter in the liquid state maintains a fixed volume, but has a variable shape that adapts to fit its container. Its particles are still close together but move freely. Matter in the gaseous state has both variable volume and shape, adapting both to fit its container. Its particles are neither close together nor fixed in place. Matter in the plasma state has variable volume and shape, but as well as neutral atoms, it contains a significant number of ions and electrons, both of which can move around freely. Plasma is the most common form of visible matter in the universe.[1]

The term phase is sometimes used as a synonym for state of matter, but a system can contain several immiscible phases of the same state of matter (see Phase (matter) for further discussion of the difference between the two terms).

Vector space


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars in this context. Scalars are often taken to be real numbers, but there are also vector spaces with scalar multiplication by complex numbers, rational numbers, or generally any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called axioms, listed below.

Euclidean vectors are an example of a vector space. They represent physical quantities such as forces: any two forces (of the same type) can be added to yield a third, and the multiplication of a force vector by a real multiplier is another force vector. In the same vein, but in a more geometric sense, vectors representing displacements in the plane or in three-dimensional space also form vector spaces. Vectors in vector spaces do not necessarily have to be arrow-like objects as they appear in the mentioned examples: vectors are regarded as abstract mathematical objects with particular properties, which in some cases can be visualized as arrows.

Vector spaces are the subject of linear algebra and are well understood from this point of view since vector spaces are characterized by their dimension, which, roughly speaking, specifies the number of independent directions in the space. A vector space may be endowed with additional structure, such as a norm or inner product. Such spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis, notably in the guise of infinite-dimensional function spaces whose vectors are functions. Analytical problems call for the ability to decide whether a sequence of vectors converges to a given vector. This is accomplished by considering vector spaces with additional structure, mostly spaces endowed with a suitable topology, thus allowing the consideration of proximity and continuity issues. These topological vector spaces, in particular Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces, have a richer theory.

Historically, the first ideas leading to vector spaces can be traced back as far as the 17th century's analytic geometry, matrices, systems of linear equations, and Euclidean vectors. The modern, more abstract treatment, first formulated by Giuseppe Peano in 1888, encompasses more general objects than Euclidean space, but much of the theory can be seen as an extension of classical geometric ideas like lines, planes and their higher-dimensional analogs.

Today, vector spaces are applied throughout mathematics, science and engineering. They are the appropriate linear-algebraic notion to deal with systems of linear equations; offer a framework for Fourier expansion, which is employed in image compression routines; or provide an environment that can be used for solution techniques for partial differential equations. Furthermore, vector spaces furnish an abstract, coordinate-free way of dealing with geometrical and physical objects such as tensors. This in turn allows the examination of local properties of manifolds by linearization techniques. Vector spaces may be generalized in several ways, leading to more advanced notions in geometry and abstract algebra.

Scalar potential

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalar_potential

Scalar potential, simply stated, describes the situation where the difference in the potential energies of an object in two different positions depends only on the positions, not upon the path taken by the object in traveling from one position to the other. It is a scalar field in three-space: a directionless value (scalar) that depends only on its location. A familiar example is potential energy due to gravity.

A scalar potential is a fundamental concept in vector analysis and physics (the adjective scalar is frequently omitted if there is no danger of confusion with vector potential). The scalar potential is an example of a scalar field. Given a vector field F, the scalar potential P is defined such that:

Switch

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switch

In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.[1][2] The mechanism of a switch may be operated directly by a human operator to control a circuit (for example, a light switch or a keyboard button), may be operated by a moving object such as a door-operated switch, or may be operated by some sensing element for pressure, temperature or flow. A relay is a switch that is operated by electricity. Switches are made to handle a wide range of voltages and currents; very large switches may be used to isolate high-voltage circuits in electrical substations.

Frame of reference

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frame_of_reference

In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.

In n dimensions, n+1 reference points are sufficient to fully define a reference frame. Using rectangular (Cartesian) coordinates, a reference frame may be defined with a reference point at the origin and a reference point at one unit distance along each of the n coordinate axes.

In Einsteinian relativity, reference frames are used to specify the relationship between a moving observer and the phenomenon or phenomena under observation. In this context, the phrase often becomes "observational frame of reference" (or "observational reference frame"), which implies that the observer is at rest in the frame, although not necessarily located at its origin. A relativistic reference frame includes (or implies) the coordinate time, which does not correspond across different frames moving relatively to each other. The situation thus differs from Galilean relativity, where all possible coordinate times are essentially equivalent.
« Last Edit: 2016-05-07, 13:25:53 by evolvingape »


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Piston

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piston

A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms. It is the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod. In a pump, the function is reversed and force is transferred from the crankshaft to the piston for the purpose of compressing or ejecting the fluid in the cylinder. In some engines, the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall.

Fire piston

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_piston

A fire piston, sometimes called a fire syringe or a slam rod fire starter, is a device of ancient origin which is used to kindle fire. It uses the principle of the heating of a gas (in this case air) by rapid and adiabatic compression to ignite a piece of tinder, which is then used to set light to kindling.[1]

Adiabatic invariant


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiabatic_invariant

An adiabatic invariant is a property of a physical system that stays constant when changes occur slowly.

In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is a change that occurs without heat flow, and slowly compared to the time to reach equilibrium. In an adiabatic process, the system is in equilibrium at all stages. Under these conditions, the entropy is constant.

In mechanics, an adiabatic change is a slow deformation of the Hamiltonian, where the fractional rate of change of the energy is much slower than the orbital frequency. The area enclosed by the different motions in phase space are the adiabatic invariants.

In quantum mechanics, an adiabatic change is one that occurs at a rate much slower than the difference in frequency between energy eigenstates. In this case, the energy states of the system do not make transitions, so that the quantum number is an adiabatic invariant.

The old quantum theory was formulated by equating the quantum number of a system with its classical adiabatic invariant. This determined the form of the Bohr–Sommerfeld quantization rule: the quantum number is the area in phase space of the classical orbit.

Thermodynamics


In thermodynamics, adiabatic changes are those that do not increase the entropy. They occur slowly, and allow heat flow only between objects at the same temperature. For isolated systems, an adiabatic change allows no heat to flow in or out.


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Space and Time: Inertial Frames

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/spacetime-iframes/

A “frame of reference” is a standard relative to which motion and rest may be measured; any set of points or objects that are at rest relative to one another enables us, in principle, to describe the relative motions of bodies. A frame of reference is therefore a purely kinematical device, for the geometrical description of motion without regard to the masses or forces involved. A dynamical account of motion leads to the idea of an “inertial frame,” or a reference frame relative to which motions have distinguished dynamical properties. For that reason an inertial frame has to be understood as a spatial reference frame together with some means of measuring time, so that uniform motions can be distinguished from accelerated motions. The laws of Newtonian dynamics provide a simple definition: an inertial frame is a reference-frame with a time-scale, relative to which the motion of a body not subject to forces is always rectilinear and uniform, accelerations are always proportional to and in the direction of applied forces, and applied forces are always met with equal and opposite reactions. It follows that, in an inertial frame, the center of mass of a system of bodies is always at rest or in uniform motion. It also follows that any other frame of reference moving uniformly relative to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame. For example, in Newtonian celestial mechanics, taking the “fixed stars” as a frame of reference, we can determine an (approximately) inertial frame whose center is the center of mass of the solar system; relative to this frame, every acceleration of every planet can be accounted for (approximately) as a gravitational interaction with some other planet in accord with Newton's laws of motion.

This appears to be a simple and straightforward concept. By inquiring more narrowly into its origins and meaning, however, we begin to understand why it has been an ongoing subject of philosophical concern. It originated in a profound philosophical consideration of the principles of relativity and invariance in the context of Newtonian mechanics. Further reflections on it, in different theoretical contexts, had extraordinary consequences for 20th-century theories of space and time.

Mass

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass

"Mass is not the same as weight"

Normal force

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normal_force

In mechanics, the normal force F_n\ is the component, perpendicular to the surface (surface being a plane) of contact, of the contact force exerted on an object by, for example, the surface of a floor or wall, preventing the object from falling. Here "normal" refers to the geometry terminology for being perpendicular, as opposed the common language use of "normal" meaning common or expected. For example, consider a person standing still on the ground, in which case the ground reaction force reduces to the normal force. In another common situation, if an object hits a surface with some speed, and the surface can withstand it, the normal force provides for a rapid deceleration, which will depend on the flexibility of the surface.

In science and engineering, the weight of an object is usually taken to be the force on the object due to gravity.[1][2] Weight is a vector whose magnitude (a scalar quantity), often denoted by an italic letter W, is the product of the mass m of the object and the magnitude of the local gravitational acceleration g;[3] thus: W = mg. The unit of measurement for weight is that of force, which in the International System of Units (SI) is the newton. For example, an object with a mass of one kilogram has a weight of about 9.8 newtons on the surface of the Earth, and about one-sixth as much on the Moon. In this sense of weight, a body can be weightless only if it is far away (in principle infinitely far away) from any other mass. Although weight and mass are scientifically distinct quantities, the terms are often confused with each other in everyday use.

Weight

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weight

In science and engineering, the weight of an object is usually taken to be the force on the object due to gravity.[1][2] Weight is a vector whose magnitude (a scalar quantity), often denoted by an italic letter W, is the product of the mass m of the object and the magnitude of the local gravitational acceleration g;[3] thus: W = mg. The unit of measurement for weight is that of force, which in the International System of Units (SI) is the newton. For example, an object with a mass of one kilogram has a weight of about 9.8 newtons on the surface of the Earth, and about one-sixth as much on the Moon. In this sense of weight, a body can be weightless only if it is far away (in principle infinitely far away) from any other mass. Although weight and mass are scientifically distinct quantities, the terms are often confused with each other in everyday use.[4]

There is also a rival tradition within Newtonian physics and engineering which sees weight as that which is measured when one uses scales. There the weight is a measure of the magnitude of the reaction force exerted on a body. Typically, in measuring an object's weight, the object is placed on scales at rest with respect to the earth, but the definition can be extended to other states of motion. Thus, in a state of free fall, the weight would be zero. In this second sense of weight, terrestrial objects can be weightless. Ignoring air resistance, the famous apple falling from the tree, on its way to meet the ground near Isaac Newton, is weightless.

Further complications in elucidating the various concepts of weight have to do with the theory of relativity according to which gravity is modelled as a consequence of the curvature of spacetime. In the teaching community, a considerable debate has existed for over half a century on how to define weight for their students. The current situation is that a multiple set of concepts co-exist and find use in their various contexts.[2]

Matter

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matter

Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound. This concept of matter may be generalized from atoms to include any objects having mass even when at rest, but this is ill-defined because an object's mass can arise from its (possibly massless) constituents' motion and interaction energies. Thus, matter does not have a universal definition, nor is it a fundamental concept in physics today. Matter is also used loosely as a general term for the substance that makes up all observable physical objects.[1][2]

All the objects from everyday life that we can bump into, touch or squeeze are composed of atoms. This atomic matter is in turn made up of interacting subatomic particles—usually a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a cloud of orbiting electrons.[3][4] Typically, science considers these composite particles matter because they have both rest mass and volume. By contrast, massless particles, such as photons, are not considered matter, because they have neither rest mass nor volume. However, not all particles with rest mass have a classical volume, since fundamental particles such as quarks and leptons (sometimes equated with matter) are considered "point particles" with no effective size or volume. Nevertheless, quarks and leptons together make up "ordinary matter", and their interactions contribute to the effective volume of the composite particles that make up ordinary matter.

Matter exists in states (or phases): the classical solid, liquid, and gas; as well as the more exotic plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.[5]

For much of the history of the natural sciences people have contemplated the exact nature of matter. The idea that matter was built of discrete building blocks, the so-called particulate theory of matter, was first put forward by the Greek philosophers Leucippus (~490 BC) and Democritus (~470–380 BC).[6]

Euclidean vector

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclidean_vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric[1] or spatial vector,[2] or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction and can be added to other vectors according to vector algebra. A Euclidean vector is frequently represented by a line segment with a definite direction, or graphically as an arrow, connecting an initial point A with a terminal point B,[3] and denoted by \overrightarrow{AB}.

A vector is what is needed to "carry" the point A to the point B; the Latin word vector means "carrier".[4] It was first used by 18th century astronomers investigating planet rotation around the Sun.[5] The magnitude of the vector is the distance between the two points and the direction refers to the direction of displacement from A to B. Many algebraic operations on real numbers such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and negation have close analogues for vectors, operations which obey the familiar algebraic laws of commutativity, associativity, and distributivity. These operations and associated laws qualify Euclidean vectors as an example of the more generalized concept of vectors defined simply as elements of a vector space.

Vectors play an important role in physics: velocity and acceleration of a moving object and forces acting on it are all described by vectors. Many other physical quantities can be usefully thought of as vectors. Although most of them do not represent distances (except, for example, position or displacement), their magnitude and direction can be still represented by the length and direction of an arrow. The mathematical representation of a physical vector depends on the coordinate system used to describe it. Other vector-like objects that describe physical quantities and transform in a similar way under changes of the coordinate system include pseudovectors and tensors.

Scalar potential

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalar_potential

Scalar potential, simply stated, describes the situation where the difference in the potential energies of an object in two different positions depends only on the positions, not upon the path taken by the object in traveling from one position to the other. It is a scalar field in three-space: a directionless value (scalar) that depends only on its location. A familiar example is potential energy due to gravity.
gravitational potential well of an increasing mass where \mathbf{F} = -\nabla P

A scalar potential is a fundamental concept in vector analysis and physics (the adjective scalar is frequently omitted if there is no danger of confusion with vector potential). The scalar potential is an example of a scalar field.

Boundary layer

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boundary_layer

In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant. In the Earth's atmosphere, the atmospheric boundary layer is the air layer near the ground affected by diurnal heat, moisture or momentum transfer to or from the surface.

Gravitational potential


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_potential

In classical mechanics, the gravitational potential at a location is equal to the work (energy transferred) per unit mass that would be done by the force of gravity if an object were moved from its location in space to a fixed reference location. It is analogous to the electric potential with mass playing the role of charge. The reference location, where the potential is zero, is by convention infinitely far away from any mass, resulting in a negative potential at any finite distance.

In mathematics the gravitational potential is also known as the Newtonian potential and is fundamental in the study of potential theory.

g-force

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G-force

g-force (with g from gravitational) is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes weight. Despite the name, it is incorrect to consider g-force a fundamental force, as "g-force" (lower case character) is a type of acceleration that can be measured with an accelerometer. Since g-force accelerations indirectly produce weight, any g-force can be described as a "weight per unit mass" (see the synonym specific weight). When the g-force acceleration is produced by the surface of one object being pushed by the surface of another object, the reaction-force to this push produces an equal and opposite weight for every unit of an object's mass. The types of forces involved are transmitted through objects by interior mechanical stresses. The g-force acceleration (save for certain electromagnetic force influences) is the cause of an object's acceleration in relation to free-fall.[1][2]

The g-force acceleration experienced by an object is due to the vector sum of all non-gravitational and non-electromagnetic forces acting on an object's freedom to move. In practice, as noted, these are surface-contact forces between objects. Such forces cause stresses and strains on objects, since they must be transmitted from an object surface. Because of these strains, large g-forces may be destructive.

Gravitation acting alone does not produce a g-force, even though g-forces are expressed in multiples of the acceleration of a standard gravity. Thus, the standard gravitational acceleration at the Earth's surface produces g-force only indirectly, as a result of resistance to it by mechanical forces. These mechanical forces actually produce the g-force acceleration on a mass. For example, the 1 g force on an object sitting on the Earth's surface is caused by mechanical force exerted in the upward direction by the ground, keeping the object from going into free-fall. The upward contact-force from the ground ensures that an object at rest on the Earth's surface is accelerating relative to the free-fall condition (Free fall is the path that the object would follow when falling freely toward the Earth's center). Stress inside the object is ensured from the fact that the ground contact forces are transmitted only from the point of contact with the ground.

Objects allowed to free-fall in an inertial trajectory under the influence of gravitation-only, feel no g-force acceleration, a condition known as zero-g (which means zero g-force). This is demonstrated by the "zero-g" conditions inside a freely falling elevator falling toward the Earth's center (in vacuum), or (to good approximation) conditions inside a spacecraft in Earth orbit. These are examples of coordinate acceleration (a change in velocity) without a sensation of weight. The experience of no g-force (zero-g), however it is produced, is synonymous with weightlessness.

In the absence of gravitational fields, or in directions at right angles to them, proper and coordinate accelerations are the same, and any coordinate acceleration must be produced by a corresponding g-force acceleration. An example here is a rocket in free space, in which simple changes in velocity are produced by the engines, and produce g-forces on the rocket and passengers.

Rotation around a fixed axis

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotation_around_a_fixed_axis

Rotation around a fixed axis is a special case of rotational motion. The fixed axis hypothesis excludes the possibility of an axis changing its orientation, and cannot describe such phenomena as wobbling or precession. According to Euler's rotation theorem, simultaneous rotation along a number of stationary axes at the same time is impossible. If two rotations are forced at the same time, a new axis of rotation will appear.

This article assumes that the rotation is also stable, such that no torque is required to keep it going. The kinematics and dynamics of rotation around a fixed axis of a rigid body are mathematically much simpler than those for free rotation of a rigid body; they are entirely analogous to those of linear motion along a single fixed direction, which is not true for free rotation of a rigid body. The expressions for the kinetic energy of the object, and for the forces on the parts of the object, are also simpler for rotation around a fixed axis, than for general rotational motion. For these reasons, rotation around a fixed axis is typically taught in introductory physics courses after students have mastered linear motion; the full generality of rotational motion is not usually taught in introductory physics classes.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

Group: Moderator
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Posts: 2578
Everyman decries immorality
Mass

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass

In physics, mass is a property of a physical body. It is generally a measure of an object's resistance to change its state of motion when a force is applied.[1] It is determined by the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies, its resistance to acceleration or directional changes, and in the theory of relativity gives the mass–energy content of a system. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg).

Mass is not the same as weight, even though we often calculate an object's mass by measuring its weight with a spring scale instead of comparing it to known masses. An object on the Moon would weigh less than it would on Earth because of the lower gravity, but it would still have the same mass. This is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that (along with gravity) causes this force.

In Newtonian physics, mass can be generalized as the amount of matter in an object. However, at very high speeds or for subatomic particles, special relativity shows that energy is an additional source of mass. Thus, any stationary body having mass has an equivalent amount of energy, and all forms of energy resist acceleration by a force and have gravitational attraction. In addition, "matter" is a loosely defined term in science, and thus cannot be precisely measured.

Weight

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weight

In science and engineering, the weight of an object is usually taken to be the force on the object due to gravity.[1][2] Weight is a vector whose magnitude (a scalar quantity), often denoted by an italic letter W, is the product of the mass m of the object and the magnitude of the local gravitational acceleration g;[3] thus: W = mg. The unit of measurement for weight is that of force, which in the International System of Units (SI) is the newton. For example, an object with a mass of one kilogram has a weight of about 9.8 newtons on the surface of the Earth, and about one-sixth as much on the Moon. In this sense of weight, a body can be weightless only if it is far away (in principle infinitely far away) from any other mass. Although weight and mass are scientifically distinct quantities, the terms are often confused with each other in everyday use.[4]

There is also a rival tradition within Newtonian physics and engineering which sees weight as that which is measured when one uses scales. There the weight is a measure of the magnitude of the reaction force exerted on a body. Typically, in measuring an object's weight, the object is placed on scales at rest with respect to the earth, but the definition can be extended to other states of motion. Thus, in a state of free fall, the weight would be zero. In this second sense of weight, terrestrial objects can be weightless. Ignoring air resistance, the famous apple falling from the tree, on its way to meet the ground near Isaac Newton, is weightless.

Further complications in elucidating the various concepts of weight have to do with the theory of relativity according to which gravity is modelled as a consequence of the curvature of spacetime. In the teaching community, a considerable debate has existed for over half a century on how to define weight for their students. The current situation is that a multiple set of concepts co-exist and find use in their various contexts.[2]

Matter

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matter

Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound. This concept of matter may be generalized from atoms to include any objects having mass even when at rest, but this is ill-defined because an object's mass can arise from its (possibly massless) constituents' motion and interaction energies. Thus, matter does not have a universal definition, nor is it a fundamental concept in physics today. Matter is also used loosely as a general term for the substance that makes up all observable physical objects.[1][2]

All the objects from everyday life that we can bump into, touch or squeeze are composed of atoms. This atomic matter is in turn made up of interacting subatomic particles—usually a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a cloud of orbiting electrons.[3][4] Typically, science considers these composite particles matter because they have both rest mass and volume. By contrast, massless particles, such as photons, are not considered matter, because they have neither rest mass nor volume. However, not all particles with rest mass have a classical volume, since fundamental particles such as quarks and leptons (sometimes equated with matter) are considered "point particles" with no effective size or volume. Nevertheless, quarks and leptons together make up "ordinary matter", and their interactions contribute to the effective volume of the composite particles that make up ordinary matter.

Matter exists in states (or phases): the classical solid, liquid, and gas; as well as the more exotic plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.[5]

For much of the history of the natural sciences people have contemplated the exact nature of matter. The idea that matter was built of discrete building blocks, the so-called particulate theory of matter, was first put forward by the Greek philosophers Leucippus (~490 BC) and Democritus (~470–380 BC).[6]

Comparison with mass

Matter should not be confused with mass, as the two are not quite the same in modern physics.[7] For example, mass is a conserved quantity, which means that its value is unchanging through time, within closed systems. However, matter is not conserved in such systems, although this is not obvious in ordinary conditions on Earth, where matter is approximately conserved. Still, special relativity shows that matter may disappear by conversion into energy, even inside closed systems, and it can also be created from energy, within such systems. However, because mass (like energy) can neither be created nor destroyed, the quantity of mass and the quantity of energy remain the same during a transformation of matter (which represents a certain amount of energy) into non-material (i.e., non-matter) energy. This is also true in the reverse transformation of energy into matter.

Different fields of science use the term matter in different, and sometimes incompatible, ways. Some of these ways are based on loose historical meanings, from a time when there was no reason to distinguish mass and matter. As such, there is no single universally agreed scientific meaning of the word "matter". Scientifically, the term "mass" is well-defined, but "matter" is not. Sometimes in the field of physics "matter" is simply equated with particles that exhibit rest mass (i.e., that cannot travel at the speed of light), such as quarks and leptons. However, in both physics and chemistry, matter exhibits both wave-like and particle-like properties, the so-called wave–particle duality.[8][9][10]

Definition

Based on mass, volume, and space

The common definition of matter is anything that has mass and volume (occupies space).[11][12] For example, a car would be said to be made of matter, as it has mass and volume (occupies space).

The observation that matter occupies space goes back to antiquity. However, an explanation for why matter occupies space is recent, and is argued to be a result of the phenomenon described in the Pauli exclusion principle.[13][14] Two particular examples where the exclusion principle clearly relates matter to the occupation of space are white dwarf stars and neutron stars, discussed further below.


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Matter exists in states (or phases): the classical solid, liquid, and gas;

Each of these first three states of matter has two phases, a vector and scalar, switching the potential reference frames therefore becomes the key.

Defining the phases via polarity to the boundary plane is a consistent model across all the three states of matter (solid, liquid and gas).

Hydraulic and pneumatic potential is significant in the liquid and gas states respectively.

hhop gen 3 and 4 is designed to produce electrical energy surplus from a fundamental force source, this is a significant mass based specific gravity field.

hhop gen 4 hybrid operates on hhop gen 3 and 4 principles, but the g-force is produced artificially by a rotational moment and a normalising plane boundary.

hhop gen 5 is purely rotational moment based within space time, and uses the spoke of the wheel as the fluid pump axis.. purely theoretical as I did not need to prove it to achieve my goal.. ain't that a kicker!   >:-)

Equivalence principle

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalence_principle

In the physics of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is actually the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.


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Flying space junk sees ISS crew take refuge in Soyuz craft

https://www.rt.com/news/310033-space-debris-iss-shelter/

Astronauts had to seek shelter inside the Soyuz vehicle, docked to the ISS, as space debris unexpectedly approached the station. However, the crew of two Russians and an American, were soon given the all clear to return back to the station.

As the information on approaching debris appeared too late to carry out an orbit adjustment of the International Space Station (ISS), the current three members of its crew had to stay inside the Soyuz vehicle for about 10 minutes, according to Roscosmos.

A hhophouse on Earth benefits from permanent 1G potential energy, and can provide for Everyman's needs, turning every desert green forever..

A hhophouse on the Moon provides the same, at 1/6th efficiency..

A hhophouse in geostationary orbit has a huge and dangerous debris field to deal with and so is a low priority option at this point..

A hhophouse on a spaceship harvesting electrical energy from the gravitational space time energy field is an incredibly exciting option!

How much fun you ape's wanna have before you die ?


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The hhop gen 3 and 4 are based upon a significant mass gravitational field with a constant force of 1G at the surface of the planet Earth sphere.

The surface creates a boundary plane with an opposite, and equal normalising force, creating potential energy in the volume space occupied directly above the boundary plane.

This potential energy has two phases, an external vector force (magnitude and direction), and an internal pressure scalar (magnitude but no direction).

You have two different potentials occupying the same space..

The EmDrive

http://www.emdrive.com/

A New Concept in Spacecraft Propulsion

Satellite Propulsion Research Ltd (SPR Ltd) a small UK based company, has demonstrated a remarkable new space propulsion technology. The company has successfully tested both an experimental thruster and a demonstrator engine which use patented microwave technology to convert electrical energy directly into thrust. No propellant is used in the conversion process. Thrust is produced by the amplification of the radiation pressure of an electromagnetic wave propagated through a resonant waveguide assembly.

The hhop gen 4 hybrid is a hhop gen 4 in a rotational moment based specific gravity field. The 1G mass based force (planet Earth) is replaced with a spinning toroid generating 1G force, spin it faster and force increases as seen at the normal plane boundary..

hhop gen 5 is a hhop gen 3 or 4 exercise in exploring a gravitational gradient within the specific gravity field, and turning a fundamental force directly into electricity.. to run an EM drive powered by space itself..

Sphere

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphere

A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball"[1]) is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball, (viz., analogous to a circular object in two dimensions).[2] Like a circle, which geometrically is a two-dimensional object, a sphere is defined mathematically as the set of points that are all at the same distance r from a given point, but in three-dimensional space. This distance r is the radius of the ball, and the given point is the center of the mathematical ball. The longest straight line through the ball, connecting two points of the sphere, passes through the center and its length is thus twice the radius; it is a diameter of the ball.

While outside mathematics the terms "sphere" and "ball" are sometimes used interchangeably, in mathematics a distinction is made between the sphere (a two-dimensional closed surface embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space) and the ball (a three-dimensional shape that includes the sphere as well as everything inside the sphere). The ball and the sphere share the same radius, diameter, and center.

Cylinder (geometry)


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cylinder_%28geometry%29

A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"[1]) is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes, the surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given straight line, the axis of the cylinder. The solid enclosed by this surface and by two planes perpendicular to the axis is also called a cylinder. The surface area and the volume of a cylinder have been known since deep antiquity.

Toroid


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toroid

In mathematics, a toroid is a surface of revolution with a hole in the middle, like a doughnut. The axis of revolution passes through the hole and so does not intersect the surface.


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hhop gen 4 is a minimalist approach concerned with apparent weight:

Apparent weight

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apparent_weight

In physics, apparent weight is a property of objects that corresponds to how heavy an object is. The apparent weight of an object will differ from the weight of an object whenever the force of gravity acting on the object is not balanced by an equal but opposite normal force. By definition, the weight of an object is equal to the magnitude of the force of gravity acting on it. This means that even a "weightless" astronaut in low Earth orbit has almost the same weight as he would have while standing on the ground.

An object that rests on the ground is subject to a normal force exerted by the ground. The normal force acts only on the boundary of the object that is in contact with the ground. This force is transferred into the body; the force of gravity on every part of the body is balanced by stress forces acting on that part. A "weightless" astronaut feels weightless due to the absence of these stress forces. By defining the apparent weight of an object in terms of normal forces, one can capture this effect of the stress forces. A common definition is "the force the body exerts on whatever it rests on."[1]

The apparent weight can also differ from weight when an object is "partially or completely immersed in a fluid", where there is an "upthrust" from the liquid that is working against the force of gravity.[2] Another example is the weight of an object or person riding in an elevator. When the elevator begins rising, the object begins exerting a force in the downward direction. If a scale was used, it would be seen that the weight of the object is becoming heavier because of the downward force, changing the apparent weight.[3]

The role of apparent weight is also important in fluidization, when dealing with a number of particles, as it is the amount of force that the "upward drag force" needs to overcome in order for the particles to rise and for fluidization to occur.[4]


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Gravitational field

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_field

In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.[1] Thus, a gravitational field is used to explain gravitational phenomena, and is measured in newtons per kilogram (N/kg). In its original concept, gravity was a force between point masses. Following Newton, Laplace attempted to model gravity as some kind of radiation field or fluid, and since the 19th century explanations for gravity have usually been taught in terms of a field model, rather than a point attraction.

In a field model, rather than two particles attracting each other, the particles distort spacetime via their mass, and this distortion is what is perceived and measured as a "force". In such a model one states that matter moves in certain ways in response to the curvature of spacetime,[2] and that there is either no gravitational force,[3] or that gravity is a fictitious force.[4]

Fictitious force

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fictitious_force

A fictitious force, also called a pseudo force,[1] d'Alembert force[2][3] or inertial force,[4][5] is an apparent force that acts on all masses whose motion is described using a non-inertial frame of reference, such as a rotating reference frame.

The force F does not arise from any physical interaction between two objects, but rather from the acceleration a of the non-inertial reference frame itself. As stated by Iro:[6][7]

    Such an additional force due to nonuniform relative motion of two reference frames is called a pseudo-force.

    — H. Iro in A Modern Approach to Classical Mechanics p. 180

Assuming Newton's second law in the form F = ma, fictitious forces are always proportional to the mass m.

A fictitious force on an object arises when the frame of reference used to describe the object's motion is accelerating compared to a non-accelerating frame. As a frame can accelerate in any arbitrary way, so can fictitious forces be as arbitrary (but only in direct response to the acceleration of the frame). However, four fictitious forces are defined for frames accelerated in commonly occurring ways: one caused by any relative acceleration of the origin in a straight line (rectilinear acceleration);[8] two involving rotation: centrifugal force and Coriolis force; and a fourth, called the Euler force, caused by a variable rate of rotation, should that occur. Gravitational force would also be a fictitious force based upon a field model in which particles distort spacetime due to their mass.

Gravitational constant


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_constant

The gravitational constant (also known as "universal gravitational constant", or as "Newton's constant"), denoted by the letter G, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. Its value is approximately 6.674×10−11 N⋅m2/kg2.[1]

According to Newton's law of universal gravitation, the attractive force (F) between two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their masses (m1 and m2), and inversely proportional to the square of the distance, r, (inverse-square law) between them.

Relative density

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relative_density

Relative density, or specific gravity,[1][2] is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a given reference material. Specific gravity usually means relative density with respect to water. The term "relative density" is often preferred in modern scientific usage. It is defined as a ratio of density of particular substance with that of water.

If a substance's relative density is less than one then it is less dense than the reference; if greater than 1 then it is denser than the reference. If the relative density is exactly 1 then the densities are equal; that is, equal volumes of the two substances have the same mass. If the reference material is water then a substance with a relative density (or specific gravity) less than 1 will float in water. For example, an ice cube, with a relative density of about 0.91, will float. A substance with a relative density greater than 1 will sink.

Temperature and pressure must be specified for both the sample and the reference. Pressure is nearly always 1 atm (101.325 kPa). Where it is not, it is more usual to specify the density directly. Temperatures for both sample and reference vary from industry to industry. In British brewing practice the specific gravity as specified above is multiplied by 1000.[3] Specific gravity is commonly used in industry as a simple means of obtaining information about the concentration of solutions of various materials such as brines, sugar solutions (syrups, juices, honeys, brewers wort, must, etc.) and acids.

Specific gravity

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specific_gravity

Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume. Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of the reference substance. The reference substance is nearly always water at its densest (4°C) for liquids; for gases it is air at room temperature (21°C). Nonetheless, the temperature and pressure must be specified for both the sample and the reference. Pressure is nearly always 1 atm (101.325 kPa). Temperatures for both sample and reference vary from industry to industry. In British beer brewing, the practice for specific gravity as specified above is to multiply it by 1000.[1] Specific gravity is commonly used in industry as a simple means of obtaining information about the concentration of solutions of various materials such as brines, hydrocarbons, sugar solutions (syrups, juices, honeys, brewers wort, must etc.) and acids.

Specific weight

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specific_weight

The specific weight (also known as the unit weight) is the weight per unit volume of a material. The symbol of specific weight is γ (the Greek letter Gamma).

A commonly used value is the specific weight of water on Earth at 5°C which is 9.807 kN/m3 or 62.43 lbf/ft3. [1]

The terms specific gravity, and less often specific weight, are also used for relative density.

Mass–energy equivalence


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass%E2%80%93energy_equivalence

In physics, mass–energy equivalence is a concept formulated by Albert Einstein that explains the relationship between mass and energy. It expresses the law of equivalence of energy and mass using the formula

        E = mc2

where E is the energy of a physical system, m is the mass of the system, and c is the speed of light in a vacuum (about 3×108 m/s). In words, energy equals mass multiplied by the speed of light squared. Because the speed of light is a very large number in everyday units, the formula implies that any small amount of matter contains a very large amount of energy. Some of this energy may be released as heat and light by chemical or nuclear transformations. This also serves to convert units of mass to units of energy, no matter what system of measurement units used.

Mass–energy equivalence arose originally from special relativity as a paradox described by Henri Poincaré.[1] Einstein proposed it in 1905, in the paper Does the inertia of a body depend upon its energy-content?, one of his Annus Mirabilis ("Miraculous Year") Papers.[2] Einstein was the first to propose that the equivalence of mass and energy is a general principle and a consequence of the symmetries of space and time.

A consequence of the mass–energy equivalence is that if a body is stationary, it still has some internal or intrinsic energy, called its rest energy. Rest mass and rest energy are equivalent and remain proportional to each other. When the body is in motion (relative to an observer), its total energy is greater than its rest energy. The rest mass (or rest energy) remains an important quantity in this case because it remains the same regardless of this motion, even for the extreme speeds or gravity considered in special and general relativity; thus it is also called the invariant mass.

Volume

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volume

Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by some closed boundary, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.[1] Volume is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit, the cubic metre. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container, i. e. the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces.

Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straight-edged, and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas. Volumes of a complicated shape can be calculated by integral calculus if a formula exists for the shape's boundary. Where a variance in shape and volume occurs, such as those that exist between different human beings, these can be calculated using three-dimensional techniques such as the Body Volume Index. One-dimensional figures (such as lines) and two-dimensional shapes (such as squares) are assigned zero volume in the three-dimensional space.

The volume of a solid (whether regularly or irregularly shaped) can be determined by fluid displacement. Displacement of liquid can also be used to determine the volume of a gas. The combined volume of two substances is usually greater than the volume of one of the substances. However, sometimes one substance dissolves in the other and the combined volume is not additive.[2]

In differential geometry, volume is expressed by means of the volume form, and is an important global Riemannian invariant. In thermodynamics, volume is a fundamental parameter, and is a conjugate variable to pressure.

Three-dimensional space (mathematics)


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-dimensional_space_%28mathematics%29

Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point). This is the informal meaning of the term dimension.

In physics and mathematics, a sequence of n numbers can be understood as a location in n-dimensional space. When n = 3, the set of all such locations is called three-dimensional Euclidean space. It is commonly represented by the symbol ℝ3. This serves as a three-parameter model of the physical universe (that is, the spatial part, without considering time) in which all known matter exists. However, this space is only one example of a large variety of spaces in three dimensions called 3-manifolds. In this classical example, when the three values refer to measurements in different directions (coordinates), any three directions can be chosen, provided that vectors in these directions do not all lie in the same 2-space (plane). Furthermore, in this case, these three values can be labeled by any combination of three chosen from the terms width, height, depth, and breadth.


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http://www.overunityresearch.com/index.php?topic=2288.msg44572#msg44572

Original credit for the water piston concept is probably "The Pulsometer steam pump is a pistonless pump which was patented in 1872[1] by American Charles Henry Hall", the original inspiration for hhop.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsometer_pump

The Vogt engine might be in with a shout but I think was behind by a few decades.. hard to tell without the patent date:

http://overunity.com/13896/hho-hydrogen-and-diesel-injection-the-truth/msg379840/#msg379840

I am sure Tommey could build a hhop, I did it without a workshop on the living room floor in a few hours assembly time (most of the time was spent sealing the joints with ptfe tape and on some occasions loctite), and for a parts cost of around a few hundred $.. the automatic timing electrics need to be added but that is probably quite cheap and easy for the talented fellow's around here. hhop is a teaching aid and not the most advanced model but if I ever come out of retirement I might build another (I gave the original away to a friend) it sure was fun shooting water in the air! Shit my pants the first time though, the reaction is rapid, violent but reasonably quiet being muffled by the stainless housing. The neighbours never complained anyway.. don't think they even heard it.

Wait until people figure out what else you can do with it.. should be an interesting year!   ^-^


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How diving leatherback turtles regulate buoyancy

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/11/101112075954.htm

Summary:

    Virtually nothing has been known about leatherback turtle diving strategies, but now scientists have discovered that leatherbacks regulate their buoyancy by varying the amount of air they inhale before they dive. Fitting nesting leatherbacks with triaxial accelerometers, temperature and pressure gauges, the team was able to make the first detailed recordings of leatherback turtle diving behavior.

Leatherback turtles are remarkably versatile divers. Routinely diving to depths of several hundred meters, leatherbacks are occasionally known to plunge as deep as 1250 meters. The animals probably plumb the depths to avoid predators, search for prey and avoid heat in the tropics. However it wasn't clear how these mammoth reptiles regulate their buoyancy as they plunge down.

Sabrina Fossette from Swansea University explains that no one knew how the turtles descended so far: do they swim down or become negatively buoyant and plummet like a stone? Curious to find out how nesting leatherbacks plumb the depths, Rory Wilson and his long time collaborator, Molly Lutcavage, decided to deploy data loggers containing triaxial accelerometers on leatherback females as they nested on beaches on St Croix in the US Virgin Islands. They found that leatherbacks probably regulate their buoyancy by varying the amount of air they inhale just before submersion.

Their finding was published Nov. 12, 2010 in the Journal of Experimental Biology.

"When you first see a leatherback turtle coming out of the water it's like a dinosaur it's really impressive," says Fossette, having just returned from collecting data in the Indian Ocean. According to Fossette, Andy Myers, Nikolai Liebsch and Steve Garner attached accelerometers to five females as they laid their eggs, and then waited 8-12 days for the reptiles to return to the beach to lay more eggs having headed out to sea. Retrieving the accelerometers, the team found that only two of the five had collected usable data, but the data loggers that functioned showed 81 dives that the team could analyze ranging from 64 meters down to 462 meters.

Back in Swansea, Fossette, Adrian Gleiss, Graeme Hays and Rory Wilson analysed the temperature, pressure and acceleration data collected by the loggers. Describing the accelerometer data Fossette says, "You can almost see the animal swimming. It's the first time we could see the locomotor activity during those deep dives."

Extracting the acceleration data that showed the leatherbacks' movements, the team could see that the turtles dived deeply at an average angle of 41 degrees as they began their descent. Initially the turtles swam with each flipper stroke lasting 3 seconds, but as they descended further they swam less hard until they stopped swimming all together, became negatively buoyant and began gliding down. At the bottom of the dive, the turtles began swimming as they heading to the surface and continued swimming until they regained buoyancy near the surface and began gliding again.

Fossette explains that many diving animals exhale before they leave the surface to minimise the risk of decompression sickness, however, leatherbacks do not. They dive carrying a lung full of air. Curious to find whether leatherbacks vary the amount of air that they inhale to regulate their buoyancy, Fossette and Gleiss compared the depths at which the turtles became negatively buoyant with the maximum depth that they reached. The team found that the deepest divers remained buoyant the longest and started gliding at deeper depths. So the turtles probably regulate their buoyancy before diving by varying the amount of air they inhale. Fossette also says, "The nesting turtles may glide for 80 percent of the dive's descent to optimize their energetic reserves, which is crucial for the production of eggs."

The team is now keen to look at the diving patterns of leatherbacks in their foraging grounds in the North Atlantic. Fossette explains that nesting turtles lose weight while foraging turtles are gaining weight and this could affect their buoyancy and diving behaviour. However, tagging a 400-kilogram turtle in the ocean is a much bigger problem than tagging them on a beach.

hhop gen 3.. so what is cryogenic hhop gen 3, and is it operating in gas by electrolysis mode or gas by heat boiling mode ?


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Mass–energy equivalence arose originally from special relativity as a paradox described by Henri Poincaré.[1] Einstein proposed it in 1905, in the paper Does the inertia of a body depend upon its energy-content?, one of his Annus Mirabilis ("Miraculous Year") Papers.[2] Einstein was the first to propose that the equivalence of mass and energy is a general principle and a consequence of the symmetries of space and time.

A consequence of the mass–energy equivalence is that if a body is stationary, it still has some internal or intrinsic energy, called its rest energy. Rest mass and rest energy are equivalent and remain proportional to each other. When the body is in motion (relative to an observer), its total energy is greater than its rest energy. The rest mass (or rest energy) remains an important quantity in this case because it remains the same regardless of this motion, even for the extreme speeds or gravity considered in special and general relativity; thus it is also called the invariant mass.

hhop includes weight as a property of mass in the presence of a normal force at a solid boundary plane.

hhop includes state of matter as a property of mass, and further defines this state into two fields, a vector and a scalar. These two separate property fields occupy the same space at the same time, and are energised by the same prime mover force, G, either/or flavour (mass based or acceleration based, within space time)..

A vector field operating as a weight can use potential G energy to compress, and therefore energise a scalar field (pascal's hydraulic laws). The scalar field lies dormant until the vector field has equalised, having used it's potential to do work (on the scalar field below it)..

The vector and scalar fields are both separate frames of reference within the same space time volume, and can be switched between reference frames at appropriate points in the cycle wave.

hhop operates within a specific gravity field.


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Pulsometer pump

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsometer_pump

The Pulsometer steam pump is a pistonless pump which was patented in 1872[1] by American Charles Henry Hall. In 1875 a British engineer bought the patent rights of the Pulsometer[2] and it was introduced to the market soon thereafter. The invention was inspired by the Savery steam pump invented by Thomas Savery. Around the turn of the century, it was a popular and effective pump for quarry pumping.

Construction and operation

This extremely simple pump was made of cast iron, and had no pistons, rods, cylinders, cranks, or flywheels. It operated by the direct action of steam on water. The mechanism consisted of two chambers. As the steam condensed in one chamber, it acted as a suction pump, while in the other chamber, steam was introduced under pressure and so it acted as a force pump. At the end of every stroke, a ball valve consisting of a small brass ball moved slightly, causing the two chambers to swap functions from suction-pump to force-pump and vice versa. The result was that the water was first suction pumped and then force pumped.[3]


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American energy firm looks to power up on pig poo

https://www.rt.com/business/344334-duke-energy-pig-poop/

US power company Duke Energy plans to buy methane gas produced from pig manure to power about nine hundred homes.

Is poo power trending ?  ;D

Let's have a look at poo then..

Dry animal dung fuel

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_animal_dung_fuel

Dry animal dung fuel (or dry manure fuel) is animal feces that has been dried in order to be used as a fuel source. It is used as a fuel in many countries around the world. Using dry manure as a fuel source is an example of reuse of excreta. A disadvantage of using this kind of fuel is increased air pollution.[1]

History


Dry animal dung was used from prehistoric times,[13] including in Ancient Persia[9] and Ancient Egypt. In Equatorial Guinea archaeological evidence has been found of the practice[14] and biblical records indicate animal and human dung were used as fuel.[15]

VW's 'dung' Beetle: The car that leaves nothing to waste... thanks to its methane gas-powered engine


http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1300546/Dung-Beetle-The-methane-gas-powered-car-leaves-waste.html

A car powered by methane gas has been created by a team of British engineers.

The vehicle named the 'Bio-Bug' is run reliably on biogas, which is produced from human waste at sewage works across the country.

Excrement flushed down the toilets of just 70 homes is enough to power the pioneering VW Beetle car for 10,000 miles - the equivalent of one average motoring year.

This conversion technology has been used in the past but the Bio-Bug is Britain's first car to run on methane gas without its performance being reduced.

The vehicle's improved reliability means that its makers believe it can 'blow away' electric cars and pave the way for a green motoring revolution.

Mohammed Saddiq, of sustainable energy firm GENeco, which developed the prototype promised that drivers 'won't know the difference'.

He said: 'Previously the gas hasn't been clean enough to fuel motor vehicles without it affecting performance.

Custom made gas from liquid compounds, like vinegar to ethane + CO2 and the water content producing hydrogen and oxygen.. as one example..

Primary process energy supplied by coupling the system to the specific gravity field and utilising field switching to extract an energy gain..

Fun times.. >:-)


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An occasional peak at the communities progress can be entertaining!

http://overunity.com/16626/simple-ou-proof/msg485380/#new

You sure know how to make the Floor shake Chet..!  ;D

http://overunity.com/8047/buoyancy-cycle-mg-where-the-h-is-free/msg201083/#msg201083

You were so close Smoky2.. and yet so far away..  ;D

http://overunity.com/6028/h20-and-bouyancy/msg137038/#msg137038

AB Hammer:

"Where are you going to get the energy to run the electrolyser to run the device? This is what kills most ideas before any possible build and is what we have to overcome to get over unity. "

"But the real sin is not to try at all. Nobody is perfect, even us who have built several devices can and will still make mistakes. For this is by no means a precise science. After several builds people will learn several things that have to be addressed at all time and then we truly learn what has to happen to get a runner. it is like a large jigsaw puzzle with several missing pieces. Those who figure what the missing pieces are will build a runner."


That was good advice.. I wonder if I read it all those years ago ? The memory is a fragile thing and somewhat revisionist in nature, depending upon points of view for context.. no matter.. the job is done now and you all understand how the jigsaw pieces fit together, don't you.. ? Where does hhop take us all.. ?


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hhop gen 4 update 5  8)


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hhop map gen 4 hybrid 5

hhop 4 is significant mass based G force within a specific gravity field.

hhop gen 4 hybrid is acceleration G force based within a specific gravity field, substituting spatial rotation for significant mass based G force.

hhop gen 5 is acceleration G force based within a specific gravity field, G force is a gradient variable dependent on fluid density within hhop gen 5 only, in gen 4 models G is treated as a constant.

The hybrid substitutes significant mass based G for rotational moment based G (acceleration within space time about a fixed point).


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CHAPTER 16: Accumulators

http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/chapter-16-accumulators

Weight loaded: All gas-charged accumulators lose pressure as fluid discharges. This is because the nitrogen gas was compressed by incoming fluid from the pump and the gas must expand to push fluid out. The weight-loaded accumulator in Figure 16-1 does not lose pressure until the ram bottoms out. Thus 100% of the fluid is useful at full system pressure. The major drawback to weight-loaded accumulators is their physical size. They take up a lot of space and are very heavy if much volume is required. They work well in central hydraulic systems because there usually is room for them in the power unit area. However, central hydraulic systems are falling out of favor, so only a few facilities use weight-loaded accumulators. (Rolling mills are one application where space to place large items is not a problem.) Note that there is often a long dwell time to fill these monsters.


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Define the green area of the graph..  O0


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World line

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_line

In physics, the world line of an object is the path of that object in 4-dimensional spacetime, tracing the history of its location in space at each instant in time. The concept of "world line" is distinguished from the concept of "orbit" or "trajectory" (such as an orbit in space or a trajectory of a truck on a road map) by the time dimension, and typically encompasses a large area of spacetime wherein perceptually straight paths are recalculated to show their (relatively) more absolute position states — to reveal the nature of special relativity or gravitational interactions. The idea of world lines originates in physics and was pioneered by Hermann Minkowski. The term is now most often used in relativity theories (i.e., special relativity and general relativity).

Usage in physics


In physics, a world line of an object (approximated as a point in space, e.g., a particle or observer) is the sequence of spacetime events corresponding to the history of the object. A world line is a special type of curve in spacetime. Below an equivalent definition will be explained: A world line is a time-like curve in spacetime. Each point of a world line is an event that can be labeled with the time and the spatial position of the object at that time.

For example, the orbit of the Earth in space is approximately a circle, a three-dimensional (closed) curve in space: the Earth returns every year to the same point in space. However, it arrives there at a different (later) time. The world line of the Earth is helical in spacetime (a curve in a four-dimensional space) and does not return to the same point.

Spacetime is the collection of points called events, together with a continuous and smooth coordinate system identifying the events. Each event can be labeled by four numbers: a time coordinate and three space coordinates; thus spacetime is a four-dimensional space. The mathematical term for spacetime is a four-dimensional manifold. The concept may be applied as well to a higher-dimensional space. For easy visualizations of four dimensions, two space coordinates are often suppressed. The event is then represented by a point in a Minkowski diagram, which is a plane usually plotted with the time coordinate, say t, upwards and the space coordinate, say x, horizontally. As expressed by F.R. Harvey

    A curve M in [spacetime] is called a worldline of a particle if its tangent is future timelike at each point. The arclength parameter is called proper time and usually denoted τ. The length of M is called the proper time of the worldline or particle. If the worldline M is a line segment, then the particle is said to be in free fall.[1]

A world line traces out the path of a single point in spacetime. A world sheet is the analogous two-dimensional surface traced out by a one-dimensional line (like a string) traveling through spacetime. The world sheet of an open string (with loose ends) is a strip; that of a closed string (a loop) is a volume.

Once the object is not approximated as a mere point but has extended volume, it traces out not a world line but rather a world tube.


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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hhop fait accompli

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/fait%20accompli

Simple Definition of fait accompli

    : something that has been done and cannot be changed

« Last Edit: 2016-06-09, 17:40:26 by evolvingape »


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‘New era of astronomy’: Gravitational waves detected for 2nd time, backing up theory of relativity

https://www.rt.com/news/346832-gravitational-waves-detected-second/

Scientists from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) have announced they have detected gravitational waves from a pair of colliding black holes for the second time, thus backing up the theory of general relativity.


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   
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some gathered parts for the replication [nice gravity battery and football sized tube about 8 foot tall]
Grum says "go big or go home" ,Circuit board should be here tomorrow.

[please remove post if its in the wrong spot]

 O0

   
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