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Author Topic: hhop  (Read 149521 times)

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Buy me a cigar
some gathered parts for the replication [nice gravity battery and football sized tube about 8 foot tall]
Grum says "go big or go home" ,Circuit board should be here tomorrow.

[please remove post if its in the wrong spot]

 O0

Good grief Chet !!    :o

However there's a simple answer in your post............ Football might make an excellent piston?   ;) ;) ;)

In anticipation, cheers Grum. 
« Last Edit: 2016-06-16, 18:51:05 by Grumage »


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Nanny state ? Left at the gate !! :)
   
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Great minds think alike..... :o

   

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As a first step you would be better off building a small tabletop version that cycles where you can see what is going on:

http://www.plastock.co.uk/polycarbonate-extruded-clear-tube?gclid=CI2qwPHWrs0CFfYy0wodQ6oEzw

Graham is correct when he says "go big or go home" and that applies to all weight loaded accumulators, it does not apply to hhop gen 5 however as the g force is rotational moment based and not mass based.

You need to build hhop gen 4 but you can leave the water wheel and alternator out to begin with and simply run a continuous cycle water pump, powered by the gravitational field.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cylinder_%28geometry%29#Volume

If the cylinder has a radius r and length (height) h, then its volume is given by

    V = πr2h

Your weight force is measured in Kg and your runtime is measured in litres, so calculate the volume of your tube and then halve it applying the appropiate units to each chamber. You will notice that a change in either the height or the radius will change your force and liquid volume variables.

Construct a table focusing on radius and keep your height constant to begin with, get a feel for what you are trying to do. A successful mindset will see 99% of the work done in the mind so only proceed when you are sure you know why you are going to do something.. using the above formula for a cylinder you can calculate your variables before hand, and using established micro hydro laws you will be able to determine how big the gen 4 needs to be for the power output you are aiming for.

A second clear tube half the length of your exterior chamber tube, and slightly smaller in diameter, will sleeve inside (with an air gap) and make a good hollow piston. You can get laser cut discs from clear polycarbonate sheet to build the piston face, glued together using cyanoacrylate and the capillary process, finished with some sealant if you wanna be fancy.. this will allow you to construct your oring groove and only requires 3 clear discs.. you can now put your switch in the piston face.. a single thick piston face would require an oring groove to be turned on the exterior diameter and most of us do not have that lathe capability hence the glueing option. You could of course build a pattern and cast your hollow piston face which would make it all one piece with an oring groove.. up to you how you proceed but I would advise it is helpful to see what is going on to begin with..

 O0


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Convert newton to kilogram:

http://www.convertunits.com/from/N/to/kg


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hhop gen 4 update 2


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Kelvin water dropper

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelvin_water_dropper

The Kelvin water dropper, invented by Scottish scientist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in 1867,[1] is a type of electrostatic generator. Kelvin referred to the device as his water-dropping condenser. The apparatus is variously called the Kelvin hydroelectric generator, the Kelvin electrostatic generator, or Lord Kelvin's thunderstorm. The device uses falling water to generate voltage differences by electrostatic induction occurring between interconnected, oppositely charged systems. Its only use has been in physics education to demonstrate the principles of electrostatics.

hhop gen 1 was running in 2011.. this wiki entry is in need of an update!
« Last Edit: 2016-07-15, 00:39:41 by evolvingape »


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hhop gen 1


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Apparent weight

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apparent_weight

In physics, apparent weight is a property of objects that corresponds to how heavy an object is. The apparent weight of an object will differ from the weight of an object whenever the force of gravity acting on the object is not balanced by an equal but opposite normal force. By definition, the weight of an object is equal to the magnitude of the force of gravity acting on it. This means that even a "weightless" astronaut in low Earth orbit has almost the same weight as he would have while standing on the ground.

An object that rests on the ground is subject to a normal force exerted by the ground. The normal force acts only on the boundary of the object that is in contact with the ground. This force is transferred into the body; the force of gravity on every part of the body is balanced by stress forces acting on that part. A "weightless" astronaut feels weightless due to the absence of these stress forces. By defining the apparent weight of an object in terms of normal forces, one can capture this effect of the stress forces. A common definition is "the force the body exerts on whatever it rests on."[1]

The apparent weight can also differ from weight when an object is "partially or completely immersed in a fluid", where there is an "upthrust" from the liquid that is working against the force of gravity.[2] Another example is the weight of an object or person riding in an elevator. When the elevator begins rising, the object begins exerting a force in the downward direction. If a scale was used, it would be seen that the weight of the object is becoming heavier because of the downward force, changing the apparent weight.[3]

The role of apparent weight is also important in fluidization, when dealing with a number of particles, as it is the amount of force that the "upward drag force" needs to overcome in order for the particles to rise and for fluidization to occur.[4]

System

A system is a set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex/intricate whole.[1] Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning.

The term system may also refer to a set of rules that governs structure and/or behavior. Alternatively, and usually in the context of complex social systems, the term is used to describe the set of rules that govern structure and/or behavior.



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Scientific theory

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_theory

A scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is acquired through the scientific method and repeatedly tested and confirmed, preferably using a written, pre-defined, protocol of observations and experiments.[1][2] Scientific theories are the most reliable, rigorous, and comprehensive form of scientific knowledge.[3]

It is important to note that the definition of a "scientific theory" (often ambiguously contracted to "theory" for the sake of brevity, including in this page) as used in the disciplines of science is significantly different from, and in contrast to, the common vernacular usage of the word "theory". As used in everyday non-scientific speech, "theory" implies that something is an unsubstantiated and speculative guess, conjecture, idea, or, hypothesis;[4] such a usage is the opposite of the word 'theory' in science. These different usages are comparable to the differing, and often opposing, usages of the term "prediction" in science (less ambiguously called a "scientific prediction") versus "prediction" in vernacular speech, denoting a mere hope.

The strength of a scientific theory is related to the diversity of phenomena it can explain, and to its elegance and simplicity (see Occam's razor). As additional scientific evidence is gathered, a scientific theory may be rejected or modified if it does not fit the new empirical findings; in such circumstances, a more accurate theory is then desired. In certain cases, the less-accurate unmodified scientific theory can still be treated as a theory if it is useful (due to its sheer simplicity) as an approximation under specific conditions (e.g., Newton's laws of motion as an approximation to special relativity at velocities that are small relative to the speed of light).

Scientific theories are usually testable and make falsifiable predictions.[5] They describe the causal elements responsible for a particular natural phenomenon, and are used to explain and predict aspects of the physical universe or specific areas of inquiry (e.g., electricity, chemistry, astronomy). Scientists use theories as a foundation to gain further scientific knowledge, as well as to accomplish goals such as inventing technology or curing disease.

As with most, if not all, forms of scientific knowledge, scientific theories are both deductive and inductive[6][7] in nature and aim for predictive power and explanatory capability.

Axiom

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axiom

An axiom or postulate as defined in classic philosophy, is a statement (in mathematics often shown in symbolic form) that is so evident or well-established, that it is accepted without controversy or question. Thus, the axiom can be used as the premise or starting point for further reasoning or arguments, usually in logic or in mathematics.[1] The word comes from the Greek axíōma (ἀξίωμα) 'that which is thought worthy or fit' or 'that which commends itself as evident.'[2][3]

As used in modern logic, an axiom is simply a premise or starting point for reasoning.[4] Whether it is meaningful (and, if so, what it means) for an axiom, or any mathematical statement, to be "true" is a central question[citation needed] in the philosophy of mathematics, with modern mathematicians[who?] holding a multitude of different opinions.[5]

As used in mathematics, the term axiom is used in two related but distinguishable senses: "logical axioms" and "non-logical axioms". Logical axioms are usually statements that are taken to be true within the system of logic they define (e.g., (A and B) implies A), while non-logical axioms (e.g., a + b = b + a) are actually substantive assertions about the elements of the domain of a specific mathematical theory (such as arithmetic). When used in the latter sense, "axiom", "postulate", and "assumption" may be used interchangeably. In general, a non-logical axiom is not a self-evident truth, but rather a formal logical expression used in deduction to build a mathematical theory. As modern mathematics admits multiple, equally "true" systems of logic, precisely the same thing must be said for logical axioms - they both define and are specific to the particular system of logic that is being invoked. To axiomatize a system of knowledge is to show that its claims can be derived from a small, well-understood set of sentences (the axioms). There are typically multiple ways to axiomatize a given mathematical domain.

In both senses, an axiom is any mathematical statement that serves as a starting point from which other statements are logically derived. Within the system they define, axioms (unless redundant) cannot be derived by principles of deduction, nor are they demonstrable by mathematical proofs, simply because they are starting points; there is nothing else from which they logically follow otherwise they would be classified as theorems. However, an axiom in one system may be a theorem in another, and vice versa.


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Work, Energy, and Power - Lesson 1 - Basic Terminology and Concepts

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/energy/Lesson-1/Definition-and-Mathematics-of-Work

Definition and Mathematics of Work

In the first three units of The Physics Classroom, we utilized Newton's laws to analyze the motion of objects. Force and mass information were used to determine the acceleration of an object. Acceleration information was subsequently used to determine information about the velocity or displacement of an object after a given period of time. In this manner, Newton's laws serve as a useful model for analyzing motion and making predictions about the final state of an object's motion. In this unit, an entirely different model will be used to analyze the motion of objects. Motion will be approached from the perspective of work and energy. The effect that work has upon the energy of an object (or system of objects) will be investigated; the resulting velocity and/or height of the object can then be predicted from energy information. In order to understand this work-energy approach to the analysis of motion, it is important to first have a solid understanding of a few basic terms. Thus, Lesson 1 of this unit will focus on the definitions and meanings of such terms as work, mechanical energy, potential energy, kinetic energy, and power.

When a force acts upon an object to cause a displacement of the object, it is said that work was done upon the object. There are three key ingredients to work - force, displacement, and cause. In order for a force to qualify as having done work on an object, there must be a displacement and the force must cause the displacement. There are several good examples of work that can be observed in everyday life - a horse pulling a plow through the field, a father pushing a grocery cart down the aisle of a grocery store, a freshman lifting a backpack full of books upon her shoulder, a weightlifter lifting a barbell above his head, an Olympian launching the shot-put, etc. In each case described here there is a force exerted upon an object to cause that object to be displaced.

Work, Energy, and Power - Lesson 2 - The Work-Energy Relationship


http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/energy/Lesson-2/Internal-vs-External-Forces

Internal vs. External Forces


There are a variety of ways to categorize all the types of forces. In a previous unit, it was mentioned that all the types of forces could be categorized as contact forces or as action-at-a-distance forces. Whether a force was categorized as an action-at-a-distance force was dependent upon whether or not that type of force could exist even when the objects were not physically touching. The force of gravity, electrical forces, and magnetic forces were examples of forces that could exist between two objects even when they are not physically touching. In this lesson, we will learn how to categorize forces based upon whether or not their presence is capable of changing an object's total mechanical energy. We will learn that there are certain types of forces, that when present and when involved in doing work on objects will change the total mechanical energy of the object. And there are other types of forces that can never change the total mechanical energy of an object, but rather can only transform the energy of an object from potential energy to kinetic energy (or vice versa). The two categories of forces are referred to as internal forces and external forces.

What Does Work Do?

Forces can be categorized as internal forces or external forces. There are many sophisticated and worthy ways of explaining and distinguishing between internal and external forces. Many of these ways are commonly discussed at great length in physics textbooks - particularly college-level physics textbooks. For our purposes, we will simply say that external forces include the applied force, normal force, tension force, friction force, and air resistance force. And for our purposes, the internal forces include the gravity forces, magnetic force, electrical force, and spring force. While this is a simplistic approach, it is an approach that will serve us well in our introduction to physics.

The importance of categorizing a force as being either internal or external is related to the ability of that type of force to change an object's total mechanical energy when it does work upon an object. When net work is done upon an object by an external force, the total mechanical energy (KE + PE) of that object is changed. If the work is positive work, then the object will gain energy. If the work is negative work, then the object will lose energy. The gain or loss in energy can be in the form of potential energy, kinetic energy, or both. Under such circumstances, the work that is done will be equal to the change in mechanical energy of the object. This principle will be discussed in great detail later in this lesson. Because external forces are capable of changing the total mechanical energy of an object, they are sometimes referred to as nonconservative forces.

When the only type of force doing net work upon an object is an internal force (for example, gravitational and spring forces), the total mechanical energy (KE + PE) of that object remains constant. In such cases, the object's energy changes form. For example, as an object is "forced" from a high elevation to a lower elevation by gravity, some of the potential energy of that object is transformed into kinetic energy. Yet, the sum of the kinetic and potential energies remains constant. This is referred to as energy conservation and will be discussed in detail later in this lesson. When the only forces doing work are internal forces, energy changes forms - from kinetic to potential (or vice versa); yet the total amount of mechanical is conserved. Because internal forces are capable of changing the form of energy without changing the total amount of mechanical energy, they are sometimes referred to as conservative forces.


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Newton's Laws - Lesson 2 - Force and Its Representation

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2a.cfm

The Meaning of Force

A force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object's interaction with another object. Whenever there is an interaction between two objects, there is a force upon each of the objects. When the interaction ceases, the two objects no longer experience the force. Forces only exist as a result of an interaction.

Contact versus Action-at-a-Distance Forces

 For simplicity sake, all forces (interactions) between objects can be placed into two broad categories:

    - contact forces, and
    - forces resulting from action-at-a-distance

Contact forces
are those types of forces that result when the two interacting objects are perceived to be physically contacting each other. Examples of contact forces include frictional forces, tensional forces, normal forces, air resistance forces, and applied forces. These specific forces will be discussed in more detail later in Lesson 2 as well as in other lessons.

Action-at-a-distance forces
are those types of forces that result even when the two interacting objects are not in physical contact with each other, yet are able to exert a push or pull despite their physical separation. Examples of action-at-a-distance forces include gravitational forces. For example, the sun and planets exert a gravitational pull on each other despite their large spatial separation. Even when your feet leave the earth and you are no longer in physical contact with the earth, there is a gravitational pull between you and the Earth. Electric forces are action-at-a-distance forces. For example, the protons in the nucleus of an atom and the electrons outside the nucleus experience an electrical pull towards each other despite their small spatial separation. And magnetic forces are action-at-a-distance forces. For example, two magnets can exert a magnetic pull on each other even when separated by a distance of a few centimeters. These specific forces will be discussed in more detail later in Lesson 2 as well as in other lessons.

Force is a Vector Quantity

A force is a vector quantity. As learned in an earlier unit, a vector quantity is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. To fully describe the force acting upon an object, you must describe both the magnitude (size or numerical value) and the direction. Thus, 10 Newton is not a full description of the force acting upon an object. In contrast, 10 Newton, downward is a complete description of the force acting upon an object; both the magnitude (10 Newton) and the direction (downward) are given.


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Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
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1-D Kinematics - Lesson 1 - Describing Motion with Words

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1DKin/Lesson-1/Scalars-and-Vectors

Scalars and Vectors

Physics is a mathematical science. The underlying concepts and principles have a mathematical basis. Throughout the course of our study of physics, we will encounter a variety of concepts that have a mathematical basis associated with them. While our emphasis will often be upon the conceptual nature of physics, we will give considerable and persistent attention to its mathematical aspect.

The motion of objects can be described by words. Even a person without a background in physics has a collection of words that can be used to describe moving objects. Words and phrases such as going fast, stopped, slowing down, speeding up, and turning provide a sufficient vocabulary for describing the motion of objects. In physics, we use these words and many more. We will be expanding upon this vocabulary list with words such as distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. As we will soon see, these words are associated with mathematical quantities that have strict definitions. The mathematical quantities that are used to describe the motion of objects can be divided into two categories. The quantity is either a vector or a scalar. These two categories can be distinguished from one another by their distinct definitions:

    - Scalars are quantities that are fully described by a magnitude (or numerical value) alone.

    - Vectors are quantities that are fully described by both a magnitude and a direction.

The remainder of this lesson will focus on several examples of vector and scalar quantities (distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration). As you proceed through the lesson, give careful attention to the vector and scalar nature of each quantity. As we proceed through other units at The Physics Classroom Tutorial and become introduced to new mathematical quantities, the discussion will often begin by identifying the new quantity as being either a vector or a scalar.

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1DKin/Lesson-1/Distance-and-Displacement

Distance and Displacement

Distance and displacement are two quantities that may seem to mean the same thing yet have distinctly different definitions and meanings.

    - Distance is a scalar quantity that refers to "how much ground an object has covered" during its motion.

    - Displacement is a vector quantity that refers to "how far out of place an object is"; it is the object's overall change in position.

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1DKin/Lesson-1/Speed-and-Velocity

Speed and Velocity

Just as distance and displacement have distinctly different meanings (despite their similarities), so do speed and velocity. Speed is a scalar quantity that refers to "how fast an object is moving." Speed can be thought of as the rate at which an object covers distance. A fast-moving object has a high speed and covers a relatively large distance in a short amount of time. Contrast this to a slow-moving object that has a low speed; it covers a relatively small amount of distance in the same amount of time. An object with no movement at all has a zero speed.

Velocity as a Vector Quantity

Velocity is a vector quantity that refers to "the rate at which an object changes its position." Imagine a person moving rapidly - one step forward and one step back - always returning to the original starting position. While this might result in a frenzy of activity, it would result in a zero velocity. Because the person always returns to the original position, the motion would never result in a change in position. Since velocity is defined as the rate at which the position changes, this motion results in zero velocity. If a person in motion wishes to maximize their velocity, then that person must make every effort to maximize the amount that they are displaced from their original position. Every step must go into moving that person further from where he or she started. For certain, the person should never change directions and begin to return to the starting position.

Velocity is a vector quantity. As such, velocity is direction aware. When evaluating the velocity of an object, one must keep track of direction. It would not be enough to say that an object has a velocity of 55 mi/hr. One must include direction information in order to fully describe the velocity of the object. For instance, you must describe an object's velocity as being 55 mi/hr, east. This is one of the essential differences between speed and velocity. Speed is a scalar quantity and does not keep track of direction; velocity is a vector quantity and is direction aware.

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1DKin/Lesson-1/Acceleration

Acceleration

The final mathematical quantity discussed in Lesson 1 is acceleration. An often confused quantity, acceleration has a meaning much different than the meaning associated with it by sports announcers and other individuals. The definition of acceleration is:

    - Acceleration is a vector quantity that is defined as the rate at which an object changes its velocity. An object is accelerating if it is changing its velocity.

Sports announcers will occasionally say that a person is accelerating if he/she is moving fast. Yet acceleration has nothing to do with going fast. A person can be moving very fast and still not be accelerating. Acceleration has to do with changing how fast an object is moving. If an object is not changing its velocity, then the object is not accelerating. The data at the right are representative of a northward-moving accelerating object. The velocity is changing over the course of time. In fact, the velocity is changing by a constant amount - 10 m/s - in each second of time. Anytime an object's velocity is changing, the object is said to be accelerating; it has an acceleration.


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Kelvin water dropper

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelvin_water_dropper

The device uses falling water to generate voltage differences by electrostatic induction occurring between interconnected, oppositely charged systems.


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Kelvin water dropper

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelvin_water_dropper

The Kelvin water dropper, invented by Scottish scientist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in 1867,[1] is a type of electrostatic generator. Kelvin referred to the device as his water-dropping condenser. The apparatus is variously called the Kelvin hydroelectric generator, the Kelvin electrostatic generator, or Lord Kelvin's thunderstorm. The device uses falling water to generate voltage differences by electrostatic induction occurring between interconnected, oppositely charged systems. Its only use has been in physics education to demonstrate the principles of electrostatics.

Details

If the buckets are metal conductors, then the built-up charge resides on the outside of the metal, not in the water. This is part of the electrical induction process, and is an example of the related "Faraday's ice bucket." Also, the idea of bringing small amounts of charge into the center of a large metal object with a large net charge, as happens in Kelvin's water dropper, relies on the same physics as in the operation of a van de Graaff generator.

The discussion above is in terms of charged droplets falling. The inductive charging effects occur while the water stream is continuous. This is because the flow and separation of charge occurs already when the streams of water approach the rings, so that when the water passes through the rings there is already net charge on the water. When drops form, some net charge is trapped on each drop as gravity pulls it toward the like-charged container.

When the containers are metal, the wires may be attached to the metal. Otherwise, the container-end of each wire must dip into the water. In the latter case, the charge resides on the surface of the water, not outside of the containers.

The apparatus can be extended to more than two streams of droplets.[4]

Self-Excited ac High Voltage Generation Using Water Droplets

http://scitation.aip.org/content/aapt/journal/ajp/41/2/10.1119/1.1987174

By letting water drops fall through rings into cans, high voltage can be spontaneously generated with no external electrical excitation. Previous work concerning this type of electric influence machine for dc and three-phase ac high voltage generation is extended to include multiphase, multifrequency operation by considering N streams and N cans. A distributed equivalent circuit representation is used to calculate the natural frequencies of the system, where it is found that many overstable modes are present. Experimental observations with up to five cans are presented. This device can serve as a model for phenomena concerned with atmospheric electricity.


In 2013, a combined group from the University of Twente (the Netherlands) constructed a microfluidic version of the Kelvin water dropper, which yields electrical voltages able to charge, deform and break water droplets of micrometric size by just using pneumatic force instead of gravity.[5]

The microfluidic Kelvin water dropper


http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.2866

The so-called "Kelvin water dropper" is a simple experiment demonstrating the spontaneous appearance of induced free charge in droplets emitted through a tube. As Lord Kelvin explained, water droplets spontaneously acquire a net charge during detachment from a faucet due to the presence of electrical fields in their surrounding created by any metallic object. In his experiment, two streams of droplets are allowed to drip from separated nozzles into separated buckets, which are at the same time interconnected through the dripping needles. In this paper we build a microfluidic water dropper and demonstrate that the droplets get charged and break-up due to electrohydrodynamic instabilities. A comparison with recent simulations shows the dependence of the acquired charge in the droplets on different parameters of the system. The phenomenon opens a door to cheap and accessible transformation of pneumatic pressure into electrical energy and to an enhanced control in microfluidic and biophysical manipulation of capsules, cells and droplets via self-induced charging of the elements.


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Pulsometer pump

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsometer_pump

The Pulsometer steam pump is a pistonless pump which was patented in 1872[1] by American Charles Henry Hall. In 1875 a British engineer bought the patent rights of the Pulsometer[2] and it was introduced to the market soon thereafter. The invention was inspired by the Savery steam pump invented by Thomas Savery. Around the turn of the century, it was a popular and effective pump for quarry pumping.

Construction and operation

This extremely simple pump was made of cast iron, and had no pistons, rods, cylinders, cranks, or flywheels. It operated by the direct action of steam on water. The mechanism consisted of two chambers. As the steam condensed in one chamber, it acted as a suction pump, while in the other chamber, steam was introduced under pressure and so it acted as a force pump. At the end of every stroke, a ball valve consisting of a small brass ball moved slightly, causing the two chambers to swap functions from suction-pump to force-pump and vice versa. The result was that the water was first suction pumped and then force pumped.[3]

A good explanation can be found in the 1901 article referenced below:

The operation of the pulsometer is as follows: The ball being at the entrance of the left-hand chamber, and the right-hand being full of water, steam enters, pressing on the surface of the water, and forcing it out through the discharge passage. A rapid condensation of steam occurs from contact with the water and with the walls of the chamber, previously cooled by the water. When the water level has reached the horizontal edge of the discharge passage, a large volume of steam suddenly escapes and is at once condensed by the relatively cold water between the chamber and the discharge valve. The pressure in the chamber quickly decreases; it cannot be sustained by steam from the boiler, for, in accordance with the inventor's first specifications, the steam pipe is small. If now the pressure in the left chamber is equal, or nearly equal, to that in the right, friction caused by the rapid flow of steam past the ball will draw the ball over and close the right-hand chamber. Cut off from further supply, the steam, in contact with water, begins to condense; a jet of cold water from the discharge pipe spurts up through the injection tube, and by breaking into spray against the side of the steam space, completes the condensation. The partial vacuum produced brings water through the suction valve to fill the chamber; but at the same time the air valve admits a little air, which passes up ahead of the water and forms an elastic cushion to prevent the water from striking violently against the steam ball. The air chamber is for the purpose of preventing water-hammer in the suction pipe.

Advantages


The pump ran automatically without attendance. It was praised for its "extreme simplicity of construction, operation, compact form, high efficiency, economy, durability, and adaptability". Later designs were improved upon to enhance efficiency and to make the machine more accessible for inspection and repairs, thus reducing maintenance costs.[4]

Detailed analysis

In the January 1901 issue of Technology Quarterly and Proceedings of the Society of Arts, an article appeared by Joseph C. Riley[5] describing key operational details and technical evaluation of the pulsometer pump's performance. Riley noted that although somewhat inefficient, the pulsometer's simplicity and robust construction made it well suited to pumping "thick liquids or semi-fluids, such as heavy syrups, or even liquid mud".[6]

Pulsometer Engineering Company Limited

Pulsometer Engineering Company Limited was founded in Britain in 1875 after a British engineer bought the patent rights of the pulsometer pump from Thomas Hall. In 1901 the company moved from London to Reading, Berkshire. In 1961 Pulsometer merged with Sigmund Pumps of Gateshead to form Sigmund Pulsometer Pumps (SPP). SPP Ltd is now part of Kirloskar Brothers Ltd.


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Electrolysis

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrolysis

In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction. Electrolysis is commercially important as a stage in the separation of elements from naturally occurring sources such as ores using an electrolytic cell. The voltage that is needed for electrolysis to occur is called the decomposition potential.


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hhop gen 1


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Mythbuster 2004 Ping Pong Salvage

https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=mythbusters+raise+boat

51% efficiency for ping pong balls, monocoque solid spheres filled with gas air internally.. hhop gen 3 is 100% efficient in liquid displacement per unit gas hho space volume  8)

MythBusters

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MythBusters

MythBusters is a science entertainment television program created by Peter Rees and produced by Australia's Beyond Television Productions.[1] The series premiered on the Discovery Channel on January 23, 2003. The series was transmitted by numerous international broadcasters, including SBS Australia (New episodes, repeat episodes show on 7mate Australia), and other Discovery channels worldwide. The show's hosts, special effects experts Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman, used elements of the scientific method to test the validity of rumors, myths, movie scenes, adages, Internet videos, and news stories. The show was one of the oldest—and the most popular—on Discovery Channel, being preceded only by How It's Made and Daily Planet, both in Canada. From 2006 to 2016, the show was overseen by British show-runner Dan Tapster, working out of Sydney, San Francisco and Manchester.

Filmed in San Francisco and edited in Artarmon, New South Wales, Australia, MythBusters aired 282 total episodes before its cancellation at the end of its 2016 season in March. Planning and some experimentation took place at Hyneman's workshops in San Francisco; experiments requiring more space or special accommodations were filmed on location, typically around the San Francisco Bay Area and other locations in northern California, going to other states or even countries on occasion when required.

During the second season, members of Savage's and Hyneman's behind-the-scenes team were organized into a second team of MythBusters ("The Build Team"). They generally tested myths separately from the main duo and operated from another workshop. This arrangement continued until August 2014, when it was announced at the end of "Plane Boarding" that Tory Belleci, Kari Byron, and Grant Imahara would be leaving the show, leaving only Hyneman and Savage as presenters and taking the show back to its origins.[2][3] On October 21, 2015, it was announced that MythBusters would air its 14th and final season in 2016. The show aired its final episode on March 6, 2016. On March 25, Discovery's sister network, Science, announced its intention of continuing the series with new hosts, to be chosen in a reality show currently in development by the network.


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On October 21, 2015, it was announced that MythBusters would air its 14th and final season in 2016. The show aired its final episode on March 6, 2016. On March 25, Discovery's sister network, Science, announced its intention of continuing the series with new hosts, to be chosen in a reality show currently in development by the network.

Awww..  :'(

With hhop being but a rumour and a myth, claiming to convert energy from the gravitational field into electrical energy at COP>1, do you think we could interest Adam and Jamie in a one off comeback special.. ?


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Plans for first space nation ‘Asgardia’ revealed, citizenship applications opened

https://www.rt.com/viral/362555-plans-first-space-nation/

Get ready to pack your bags because there’s a new nation in town, or rather in space. Scientists have unveiled plans for “Asgardia”, a floating nation and defender of the Earth with room for 100,000 citizens.

Dr Igor Ashurbeyli of the Aerospace International Research Center announced the plans in Paris, saying Asgardia aims to “flourish free from the tight restrictions of state control that currently exist.” He announced the plans on the same day he became chairman of UNESCO’s Science of Space committee.

Ashurbeyli said their mission is to act as guardians of the Earth, and the “nation” would first get to work building a protective shield to protect Earth from debris, asteroids and coronal mass ejections from the sun.

Currently all space programs, including commercial, must be supervised and authorised by a government on Earth. When applications for Asgardian citizenship goes above 100,000 they can apply to the UN for the status of state, according to Ashurbeyli.

An online registration form is welcoming applications for citizenship, with the first 100,000 qualifying for automatic citizenship. No word yet on how people can become citizens in the future, or whether there’ll be a wall built between Asgardia and Earth.

Named after the city in the sky ruled by Odin in Norse mythology, Asgardia is the work of a team of scientists and legal experts who claim it will someday become a member of the United Nations with its own flag and national anthem.

Asgardia gets underway in late 2017, when the team plan to launch a satellite into a low-Earth orbit. Until then we’ll have to stay here on boring old Earth.

If you want Asgardian citizenship I would hurry.. places going fast! 10,631 Asgardians so far and counting!  O0

http://asgardia.space/citizenship


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hhop gen 4 update 2 is presented as a thought experiment, one of my favourites!

It is possible to recreate the system on the left of the drawing if the piston is perfectly balanced around the zero point of the secondary boundary plane, the apparent weight of the piston will be absorbed equally and oppositely, within the scalar field of the fluid it is floated in.

The central system in the drawing cannot be balanced, the high density low volume solid will seek gpe equivalence and therefore rest at the normal plane in the sump of the system, pumping water out of the backpressure restrictor outlet nozzle in order to reach static equilibrium.

The third system on the right of the drawing simply asks you to substitute a solid mass weight for a liquid mass weight, within the hollow piston. The defining characteristic of this substitution is the information that is permitted to communicate across the secondary boundary plane.

A body defined as a vector weight force (within a specific part of the overall system) must not be allowed to transition to a different state where it's weight force becomes scalar pressure (within a specific fluid) and is normalised at the primary boundary plane instead of the secondary boundary plane along the mating face of the hollow piston.

With a hhop gen 4 lower liquid chamber static operating pressure of 3000 psi there will be 3k psi of backpressure trying to push your valve open.. if it succeeds the normally dominant system takes over and the effect vanishes and resets to starting conditions.. which is a relatively negatively buoyant system hence the ability of hhop for an automatic system reset at the end of the working 1/2 cycle.


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Gravitational field

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_field

In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.[1] Thus, a gravitational field is used to explain gravitational phenomena, and is measured in newtons per kilogram (N/kg). In its original concept, gravity was a force between point masses. Following Newton, Laplace attempted to model gravity as some kind of radiation field or fluid, and since the 19th century explanations for gravity have usually been taught in terms of a field model, rather than a point attraction.

In a field model, rather than two particles attracting each other, the particles distort spacetime via their mass, and this distortion is what is perceived and measured as a "force". In such a model one states that matter moves in certain ways in response to the curvature of spacetime,[2] and that there is either no gravitational force,[3] or that gravity is a fictitious force.[4]

Gravitational wave

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_wave

Gravitational waves are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves at the speed of light, generated in certain gravitational interactions that propagate outward from their source. The possibility of gravitational waves was discussed in 1893 by Oliver Heaviside using the analogy between the inverse-square law in gravitation and electricity.[1] In 1905 Henri Poincaré first proposed gravitational waves (ondes gravifiques) emanating from a body and propagating at the speed of light as being required by the Lorentz transformations.[2] Predicted in 1916[3][4] by Albert Einstein on the basis of his theory of general relativity,[5][6] gravitational waves transport energy as gravitational radiation, a form of radiant energy similar to electromagnetic radiation.[7] Gravitational waves cannot exist in the Newton's law of universal gravitation, since it is predicated on the assumption that physical interactions propagate at infinite speed.

Gravitational-wave astronomy is an emerging branch of observational astronomy which aims to use gravitational waves to collect observational data about objects such as neutron stars and black holes, events such as supernovae, and processes including those of the early universe shortly after the Big Bang.

Various gravitational-wave observatories (detectors) are under construction or in operation, such as Advanced LIGO which began observations in September 2015.[8]

Potential sources of detectable gravitational waves include binary star systems composed of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. On February 11, 2016, the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration teams announced that they had made the first observation of gravitational waves, originating from a pair of merging black holes using the Advanced LIGO detectors.[9][10][11] On June 15, 2016, a second detection of gravitational waves from coalescing black holes was announced.[12][13][14]

Spacetime

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spacetime

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single interwoven continuum. Since 300 BCE, the spacetime of our universe has historically been interpreted from a Euclidean space perspective, which regards space as consisting of three dimensions, and time as consisting of one dimension, the "fourth dimension". By combining space and time into a single manifold called Minkowski space in 1908, physicists have significantly simplified a large number of physical theories, as well as described in a more uniform way the workings of the universe at both the supergalactic and subatomic levels.


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hhop gen 4 update 2 is presented as a thought experiment, one of my favourites!


Coming on this rather late I don't have the knowledge to know what to look for..

If I wanted to build a table top model could you direct me to some of the relevant posts please. Is there a plan page or pictures of a model?

And briefly, how does it work, in terms I might understand?

Thanks

Ron
   

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That is a fair position Ron, deserves a reasonable answer. Ernie made a similar request recently in another thread so let's have a go..

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rqBq5aTvCOE&feature=youtu.be

This video was made by Graham a little over a year ago and is a record of his hands on experience with a hhop gen 2, the last one I built and donated to his museum collection.

The outlet pipe is clear and you can clearly see the air / water (liquid / gas) interface boundary layer. The surface of the water for simplicity sake as we tend to ignore the air.. becuase we cannot see it.. hence hhop gen 4 update 2 background is green, allowing you to notice that there are two working fluids in an equivalent balance interacting at the boundary plane. Phew.. take a breath..

Now we have a look at the displacement chamber and notice we have a fully bled starting condition, so there is no gas / liquid boundary plane, but there is a solid liquid boundary plane but we typically don't notice it.

When we use electricity in the hho cell we create a phase transition of liquid to gas and a gas bubble appears in the top of the displacement chamber. It is at the top because gas is less dense than liquid and so displaces the liquid below it and pumps it out of the outlet tube. If there is no outlet tube the gas will continue to be created in a fixed volume and therefore pressure will increase until the solid breaks and allows equalisation with the atmospheric pressure (a gas at 15psi, 1 Bar). So information about the inside of the system is allowed to cross the solid boundary plane and the system equalises see..  ;)

hhop gen 3 replaces the gas / liquid boundary plane interface in the hhop gen 2 displacement chamber with a solid.. and adds a switch to allow or deny the information state of the system to cross the boundary plane..

With the ability of hhop gen 3 to create gas pressure and displace a liquid (do work on) you can make the density of the volume of space defined.. a variable..  O0

hhop gen 4 removes the hho cell and therefore the piston boundary plane becomes a constant density with a constant relative buoyancy and you switch between two frames of reference which are both unbalanced around the zero point, one a little bit.. one a lot!  ;D

hhop gen 5 is an untested hypothesis that potentially could remove the large space problem (footprint) of hhop gen 4 by rotating the system and making the 'g' force a variable within a system that is defined by a significant gravitational gradient. It attempts to use hhop gen 4 based on Newtons significant mass in a model defined by Einstein within relativity.

hhop gen 6 is based on hhop gen 3 and 4 technology and returns to it's roots.. the working principle of the Pulsometer pump.. an external combustion engine. Heat and boiling phase change to create gas within a cryogenic liquid is the model, replacing the electrolytic gas created by electrolysis..

That's a bit of background to help you decide where on the hhop tree you are.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   
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