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Author Topic: Smudge's Halbach Motor  (Read 1380 times)
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Here is a paper that I have just compiled dealing with a modified Halbach array that offers the potential for a free-running magnet motor.  My simulations in FEMM for a pair of linear arrays show that a linear motor utilizing permanent magnets could work.  The question now is would a pair of circular arrays also offer this possibility for a rotary version.  I do not have the capability of building such a device so I offer it to anyone out there to give it a try.  The advantage over other motors that have evolved by trail and error experimentation is that its working principle is clear, hence it is more likely to be accepted by the scientific establishment.  And finessing the design for best performance is a doddle.

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Hi Cyril,
Thanks for sharing. It would not be too difficult to setup a 3d printed rig for this as I have done for my Howard Johnson array. I have not been able to get a circular array working though as the rotor is fairly tricky as it is a banana shaped magnet. I think I can build this with my 3mm cubes though.
Thanks again.
   
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Thank you Jim for your interest.  3mm cubes are tiny, so I would be inclined to use more than the 16 as in my circular array.  I did try simulating a single circular array with the working side facing inwards, but that did not show the same effect as a linear array.  In that arrangement the change from linear to circular took away the wanted effect.  However I am still looking into this simpler arrangement to see whether I can get it to work,

Smudge
   
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Smudge:  "hence it is more likely to be accepted by the scientific establishment. "

   If the device is 100% replicable, I wouldn't worry about acceptance by the scientific establishment!  or the MSMedia.   

Go direct to the people, and make it broadly available (IMHO):  a small replicable device will sell and spread like hotcakes, IMHO.

The "proof" will be in everyone's hands who holds the device - can't beat that for credibility!
« Last Edit: 2020-11-11, 21:12:36 by PhysicsProf »
   
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Thanks Cyril,

In your alternate linear version of the Halbach array your FEMM results were improved by using a permeable material such as Fe in
place of certain magnets. Could you do the same for the circular array using square magnets and wedge shaped transitions between either a few of the PMs or all?

There's also the option of 'squaring the circle' by using a polygon of linear segments, but it might add complexity to the radial magnet, or not.

tak 
   
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Thanks Cyril,

In your alternate linear version of the Halbach array your FEMM results were improved by using a permeable material such as Fe in
place of certain magnets. Could you do the same for the circular array using square magnets and wedge shaped transitions between either a few of the PMs or all?

I have tried various versions with Fe with varying degrees of success.  The rotary version definitely works but I don't get the sort of gain you get with a long array, I am only using 16 magnets in the circle.  And, unlike the long array where the force can be made to always be positive, in this rotary version there is always negative torque regions that of course can be smoothed out, the overall torque is positive so it will definitely work.  The more I study this the clearer things are becoming.  I can do things in FEMM that would be impossible in practice, like replace the magnets with air cored solenoids carrying huge currents.  When you do that the energy extracted by the movement has to come from the current sources.  I can use FEMM to tell me the fluxes within each solenoid during the rotor movement and from that I can obtain the energy taken from or fed back to the current sources.  That tells me the energy taken from or fed back to the atomic dipoles within the magnets, so this should enable me to understand where the energy comes from.  It should also allow me to optimise the design.  I have always known that within magnet motors there is this complex exchange of energy with the internal dipoles, but have never before been able to exploit this feature to any advantage.  Hopefully this gives us a way to move ahead in the search for so called free energy.  More to come when I write it all up.

Smudge

   

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My build just got prioritized as I came off a quad bike yesterday:) plenty of 3D design time now. The differences you outline between linear and a circular track is exactly what I see in my hojo motor as well. Looking forward to this.
   
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I have tried various versions with Fe with varying degrees of success.  The rotary version definitely works but I don't get the sort of gain you get with a long array, I am only using 16 magnets in the circle.  And, unlike the long array where the force can be made to always be positive, in this rotary version there is always negative torque regions that of course can be smoothed out, the overall torque is positive so it will definitely work.  The more I study this the clearer things are becoming.  I can do things in FEMM that would be impossible in practice, like replace the magnets with air cored solenoids carrying huge currents.  When you do that the energy extracted by the movement has to come from the current sources.  I can use FEMM to tell me the fluxes within each solenoid during the rotor movement and from that I can obtain the energy taken from or fed back to the current sources.  That tells me the energy taken from or fed back to the atomic dipoles within the magnets, so this should enable me to understand where the energy comes from.  It should also allow me to optimise the design.  I have always known that within magnet motors there is this complex exchange of energy with the internal dipoles, but have never before been able to exploit this feature to any advantage.  Hopefully this gives us a way to move ahead in the search for so called free energy.  More to come when I write it all up.

Smudge

Smudge,

Wouldn't a circle array with a large radius improve the magnetic characteristics?
Also, does the circle array have to be continuous? Could it be separated into 4 or 6 sections?

Regards
Cadman



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Smudge,

Wouldn't a circle array with a large radius improve the magnetic characteristics?

Well I have just doubled the number of magnets at twice the radius and if anything it is worse.  This is with the working side of the array pointing inwards.  I can't simulate the system I proposed in my paper as FEMM is only a 2D program.  It seems the cylindrical geometry is the problem and maybe with the working side of the array pointing along the cylindrical axis it will work.

Quote
Also, does the circle array have to be continuous? Could it be separated into 4 or 6 sections?
I will try that, easy enough to chop out some sections in my simulation.

Smudge
   
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I have had no success with a circular version of the modified Halbach array.  However having caught the magnetic motor bug I have been looking at motors with a circular array of tilted magnets for which there are several working models on youtube, including the infamous Perendev one.   I will report on this later.  Meanwhile I have looked into my linear modified Halbach motor to see where the energy comes from and while doing so realized that there is a simple way to look at how permanent magnets can give up energy (do work) that takes you to the heart of the problem.  See what you think of this paper.

Smudge
   
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I have had no success with a circular version of the modified Halbach array.  However having caught the magnetic motor bug I have been looking at motors with a circular array of tilted magnets for which there are several working models on youtube, including the infamous Perendev one.   I will report on this later.  Meanwhile I have looked into my linear modified Halbach motor to see where the energy comes from and while doing so realized that there is a simple way to look at how permanent magnets can give up energy (do work) that takes you to the heart of the problem.  See what you think of this paper.

Smudge

Excellent paper!

PM
   

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Thanks for this Cyril. Very interesting 🧐. I’m still building the circular array but I suspect I’ll see a similar behaviour that I have seen in my Howard Johnson motor build.
   
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This may need a separate thread, but here is a paper about permanent magnet motors generally.  Since it deals with rectangular magnets, and knowing Jim B has some small square ones, I am hoping that some experiments will validate the conclusions.  If so it could open a new chapter into PM motor development.  I am sure that Chet will link this into OU.com and possibly other free energy sites.

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This may need a separate thread, but here is a paper about permanent magnet motors generally.  Since it deals with rectangular magnets, and knowing Jim B has some small square ones, I am hoping that some experiments will validate the conclusions.  If so it could open a new chapter into PM motor development.  I am sure that Chet will link this into OU.com and possibly other free energy sites.

Smudge
Happy new year smudge! Just had my first read. The tiny cube magnets are hard to work with in close proximity with fat fingers. This looks a lot easier to build than the last one. I may order new mags for it though.
   
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Happy new year smudge! Just had my first read. The tiny cube magnets are hard to work with in close proximity with fat fingers. This looks a lot easier to build than the last one. I may order new mags for it though.
Happy new year Jim.  Before ordering new thinner magnets may I suggest a version of the motor you have been building using your cubic magnets.  This is illustrated in the image below and I think it could work.  It is not a halbach array, all the stator magnets have their N (or S) pole facing inwards.  It is clear to me that the rotor magnets will have a torque as they try to align with the radial field from the nearby stator magnet

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...as they try to align with the radial field from the nearby stator magnet.


I wonder if the angle of their mounting should be adjustable.
   

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Happy new year Jim.  Before ordering new thinner magnets may I suggest a version of the motor you have been building using your cubic magnets.  This is illustrated in the image below and I think it could work.  It is not a halbach array, all the stator magnets have their N (or S) pole facing inwards.  It is clear to me that the rotor magnets will have a torque as they try to align with the radial field from the nearby stator magnet

Smudge
Thanks for that. It’s showing enough interesting behaviour for me to lose a lot of hours. What I’m seeing makes sense the way you explained. Edit. Designing an adjustable rotor. :}. Lost some hours on this today, thanks smudge
« Last Edit: 2021-01-02, 13:35:36 by JimBoot »
   

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Hi Smudge I’m thinking of another rotor where those spokes are arcs with spots for 6 of those mags that I can test. The behaviour is very similar to the Howard Johnson motor. Also I think my stator mags need to be closer to ease clogging. I think precision is the key. I’ll be printing as much as I can 😂 edit forgot pic
« Last Edit: 2021-01-05, 09:09:06 by JimBoot »
   
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Hi Smudge I’m thinking of another rotor where those spokes are arcs with spots for 6 of those mags that I can test. The behaviour is very similar to the Howard Johnson motor. Also I think my stator mags need to be closer to ease clogging. I think precision is the key. I’ll be printing as much as I can 😂 edit forgot pic

At the UK FE conference a decade ago, Patrick was talking about the Takahashi motor and pointed out the area in the cycle where energy regauging took place. He implied (and it is so sad he is no longer available to us - God rest him) that if a cycle didn't have an obvious "regauging area", then it wouln't draw in energy.]
   

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At the UK FE conference a decade ago, Patrick was talking about the Takahashi motor and pointed out the area in the cycle where energy regauging took place. He implied (and it is so sad he is no longer available to us - God rest him) that if a cycle didn't have an obvious "regauging area", then it wouln't draw in energy.]
Makes sense. I think I have to much though so I’ll do a test with a new stator as well.
   
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Paul R,
That need for regauging comes about if static magnetic fields, like static electric fields, are conservative.  That is if in moving around a closed loop a net energy gain or loss is zero.  It is the standard viewpoint of classical physics.  But if you look at some of the PM motors that have been seen to work, they do not have this regauging.  Clearly each rotor magnet is moving around a closed loop and is gaining energy.  This tells me that the classical view is wrong.  I may have discovered the flaw in classical EM with the finding (yet to be verified) that voltage can be induced into a coil not only by the rate-of-change of flux passing through it, but also by the rate of movement of a non-uniform PM field sweeping by it.

Jim B,
Thanks for taking interest in this and good luck with your experiments.

Regards
Smudge
   
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Another offering from me.  Enjoy!!
   
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Smudge
Thanks for the paper and it was an interesting read.

I had always considered a PM to be equivalent to a current loop because the electron orbits in the atoms/domains are a current loop. However PM's have some peculiar qualities like weak ferrite magnets being able to flip the domains and change polarity then return to the original state. We can also use a magnet as a storage device and if a rigidly held PM is struck near a coil the oscillations causing a loss of magnetism can produce extra induction. A magnet can also become a resonant circuit element by conduction and induction as some magnet materials conduct and are prone to eddy current formation within the material.

I did countless experiments on various magnets and setups using hall effect magnetometers/tickler coils and there is a lot to learn.

Regards
AC


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