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Author Topic: Transatlantic Telluric Communication Experiment  (Read 8939 times)

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A few of us have been coordinating to perform some Tesla-style long-range communications experiments these next few months, using the ground as a longitudinal medium. :)

Adrian Marsh's synopsis here:
Quote
http://www.energeticforum.com/forum/energetic-forum-discussion/renewable-energy/tesla/tesla-energy-research/tesla-wireless-communications/510802-transatlantic-telluric-communication-experiment

"The transatlantic telluric communication project is an experimental attempt to transfer power between two specially arranged Tesla transformers, one in the US and one in the UK. Electrical power and hence modulated communication in the form of Morse Code or low bandwidth telephony will be transferred between TX and RX bidirectionally. If this experiment could prove successful it will represent one of the most significant Tesla based experiments since Tesla's own era, and also serve to validate the principles, apparatus, and experiments that Tesla was engaged with. Even if not successful it should reveal a wealth of research into the underlying principles and suitable apparatus for further investigations and experiments, and whether telluric power transfer and communication is actually possible over such large distances through the earth."

"Tesla was originally arranging telluric transfer of power at 45Kc which requires very large coil dimensions, and powerful apparatus and generator equipment to drive the TMT system. This intended experiment will start in the 160m amateur radio band, at say 1.86Mc, where coil dimensions and generator apparatus and power are much more manageable, and work down in frequency band from this if required, and as resources become available."


In prep for these upcoming experiments, I spent the last couple days fabricating a large Tesla Coil secondary out of UHMW polyethylene.

* Construction technique and calculating dimensions+wire length is outlined here if anyone's interested in building high-efficiency open-frame Tesla Coils: https://hakasays.com/blog/tesla-high...-construction/
* The target frequency is just above the 160m HAM radio band, so about 2-2.4mc.
* Using RG316 coax cable since it is silver coated and has a quite large surface area. Only the outer sheath is being used in this instance, same as Adrian's setup in UK.
* I intentionally left it oversize to allow lots of room for trimming to hit the target frequency. It’s better to be 10 feet too long than one inch too short.

This next week for me will be trying various permutations of secondaries and extra coils so I can get a comfortable baseline to work with before trimming things down to-size.

I'll be using a vector network analyzer to help with this process, and I will try to document a clear process for others that wish to follow along themselves.  Things get really wonky when measuring multiple interacting coils, as the series and parallel modes all play an interact with each-other in interesting ways. C.C


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The problem with this link may be the background noise. Better than a Morse transmission, I advise you to use the FT8 digital mode for your project, which allows to decode signals down to -20 dB below the background noise. The FT8 is widely used, but there are others, down to -30 dB, see here with the software: https://physics.princeton.edu/pulsar/k1jt/wsjtx.html
(if you are a ham radio operator, you must already know them).

Ham radio have already communicated around the earth on these frequencies.
If the signal passes, how will you distinguish your transmission from a classical radio transmission?



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The problem with this link may be the background noise. Better than a Morse transmission, I advise you to use the FT8 digital mode for your project, which allows to decode signals down to -20 dB below the background noise.

This is a good point.
We will be trying multiple modes, partly because different modes can provide additional non-herzian gradients that work better in parallel resonance, and partly because one preliminary experiment actually reported better performance with voice than with CW.

Quote
Ham radio have already communicated around the earth on these frequencies.
If the signal passes, how will you distinguish your transmission from a classical radio transmission?

1 - Since none of our systems will have radiating antennae, the transverse wave should be minimized, especially at such a low frequency band.
With 100 watts it's proven difficult to pick up *anything over a mile away using an ungrounded aerial with these setups.

1.5 - Receiving stations with conventional aerials will also be used for cross-comparison.  Both onside as well as through online public SDR's.  There will inevitably be some bleedover as transverse modulation is required to sustain the longitudinal mode.

2 - Performing the tests over a period of time should also rule out aerial and ionospheric skip (since there are times when conditions do not allow skip propagation, especially in the 160m band.
If we get consistent performance over a long period with no significant change in reception quality, that would fairly conclusively rule out transverse propagation.

3 - There is a small chance we'll get measurable power at shorter distance (2-10 miles).  Recovering >30% power at a receiving station through the earth at those distances using the ground as a transmission cavity would confirm longitudinal displacement.
Dr Adrian Marsh has the best bench results with this so far using a pair of TMT's to send 500 watts a short distance over a 40awg wire at 99%+ efficiency.    https://www.am-innovations.com/high-efficiency-transference-of-electric-power/



At the moment I'm getting a feel for the three-coil arrangements as there are a lot of interesting dynamics that influence each-other between secondary and extra.  Not only are the resonant frequencies dragged up/down in concatenated mode, but each coil will 'push' the other up/down in frequency as well.

For example, you can have an Extra coil that naturally resonates at 2.1mc in-air at 1/4-wave,
but concatenating it in series with a secondary can bring that frequency all the way down to 1.43mc,  or all the way UP to 2.49mc depending on the characteristics of the secondary. :o ;)
It's a weird, complex interaction that will take a few good days to piece together.
« Last Edit: 2022-08-05, 15:56:18 by Hakasays »


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@Hakasays

I agree with your points 1.5, 2 and 3, which eliminates the risk of confusion with the classical wireless. For 1 also, if precautions are taken, because even a coil can radiate hertzian waves, and also the mains wires that feed the setup and can get more or less coupled to the "hot" conductors and make antenna. It is of course unlikely that this would create a significant field at great distances.

For tuning, a similar idea is to place inside the large coil another rotatable coil, connected in series. If you turn it from 0 to 180°, it will be in the same direction or opposite to the other, with all the intermediate degrees, its effect will reduce or increase the inductance, which allows a considerable variation of the tuning range. This is used in antenna couplers.

I was also interested in longitudinal waves at one time, but without success, because of the pollution of the effect sought by the classical electromagnetic field (Kühn's experiment, Zimmermann's experiment, or simple capacif coupling experiment at tens of m). I will therefore follow with interest your project, a UK/US link being able to remove any doubt.





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After a hundred feet of wasted/cut coax, I'm finally honing in on a good procedure for building+tuning a Tesla Magnifying Transmitter.😙

Short version:   You need to wind your secondary and extra coil to about 1.5x your target frequency.
  Measure each coil separately with a VNA or function generator and scope/meter until you have a match, THEN join them together and measure the series resonant frequencies.
If your frequency is too low, you trim an equal amount from both coils until you are close to your desired target.  Keep going back+forth tuning each coil separately to ensure they stay roughly the same.

With the same wire, when both have roughly equal length, they will also have equal weight, which corresponds to roughly equal capacitance, which causes both halves to interact most strongly in longitudinal mode.

Or at least this is the assessment I am arriving at.  There are a LOT of small factors revolving around capacitance, but they can more-or-less be solved by adjusting the aerial height of the Extra, by lower the extra deeper into the secondary's magnetic field, or by adding layers of polyethylene tape to one of the two coils.

My latest proper coil has both secondary+extra at 2.35mc, resulting in a concatenated series resonance of 1.487mc
(still need to clip both coils a smidges to tune it up to the 160 meters band)🙂

At this rate I should have the first TMT up and running Sunday, though I want to wind a second so I can do short-distance experiments and fine-tuning.🤠😉


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Myself and a couple other HAMs performed some rudimentary tests yesterday on 160m to see if transverse waves could be picked up through-the-ground in transverse mode over hundreds-of-miles (no signal was received).
But since I had a pair of Tesla-type coils set up and tuned to the same frequency I thought I'd try transmitting power between them in a couple brief experiments.

Enjoy:
https://www.bitchute.com/video/mFjOoQ3aLzqG/


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Also posting Dr Adrian Marsh's setup that mine is being modeled after.

https://www.am-innovations.com/high-efficiency-transference-of-electric-power/

In the final part of the video he is sending 600w across a 40awg wire lighting a large floodlight on one end with 99.5%+ efficiency. :o :o


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Have you achieved actual energy magnification from your extra coils yet?
   

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Have you achieved actual energy magnification from your extra coils yet?

In terms of excess energy, no.

I treat magnification factor as 'applied Q', or you could say transformer action via resonance instead of winding ratios.
So a one-wire extra coil with a Q factor of 300 could be considered a 300:1 magnifying transformer, forming a high current node at one end and a high voltage node at the other end.

I'm personally of the opinion that non-conservative systems all rely mathematically on parametric variation (of inductance/capacitance/impedance).
In terms of impedance, this arrangement is symmetric so I doubt there will be any noticeable production/destruction.


However I do have some future plans to verify the parametric hypothesis.  One test will be intermittently breaking the ground-lead connection of the coil at an even harmonic.  The secondary/extra would become a half-wave coil during part of the cycle and a quarter-wave coil during another portion, thus modulating the impedance. :)


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Are you tuning for the transverse resonance or the longitudinal resonance?

Once the radiant energy effect is present the extra coil should magnify the power applied.  This is my understanding.

Note that this would be with uni-directional impulses that never go to zero, looks like switching over a DC bias.
   

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Are you tuning for the transverse resonance or the longitudinal resonance?

lol, BOTH. ;D
I'm following Adrian's setups for now, which is tuning the transverse mode at the Tx/Rx radio frequency, and matching the parallel modes in magnitude of impedance (so they act as equal plates of a virtual capacitor).

I'm still exploring the waves and possibilities, there are almost certainly some simple configurations with esoteric results that we haven't tried yet. :P


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Turning up the power to the longitudinal transmission system and powering more substantial loads through a single wire, bulb, and a 200ma fuse all in series.

https://www.bitchute.com/video/5vJpSnIpsgGs/

This was another somewhat cobbled-together test as I'm still working at finishing+tuning the second Tesla Magnifying Transmitter.   A matched set should perform much better  ;)

Once the second TMT is finished and tuned-in, I can start upping the efficiency and do some short-range power tests between ground rods and/or impossibly thin wires. ;D


As I can't really afford $800 for a decked-out Bird meter at the moment, near-future tests will be done by reading calibrated light output from the higher-power bulbs.  An arbitrary bulb or set of bulbs can be calibrated against a kill-a-watt meter to a precision lux meter, and that can then be referenced to get a fair idea on total power consumed in the load.


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Any terminal at the end of a line has a capacitance with respect to the electrical ground.
As this capacitance has a low impedance at high frequencies, the "single wire transmission" is in fact a classical transmission with return by capacitive coupling.
If the system is resonant, the effect is even more effective because the impedance of the loop circuit is reduced to the resistance of the conductors.


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Any terminal at the end of a line has a capacitance with respect to the electrical ground.
As this capacitance has a low impedance at high frequencies, the "single wire transmission" is in fact a classical transmission with return by capacitive coupling.
If the system is resonant, the effect is even more effective because the impedance of the loop circuit is reduced to the resistance of the conductors.

Capacitive coupling is a good way to describe it. O0   Except IMO the top terminal of the Extra coil acts as a 'virtual ground', and the lower terminal becomes one plate of the capacitor.

Depending on tuning and efficiency, the wire connecting the two coils then begins to behave more as a dielectric than as a conductor, which is why little or no conduction current shows up in it, and why transfer efficiency starts to go through the roof.

For intercontinental communications, the Earth is then treated as a dielectric medium rather than a conducting one.   The high quality ground is still required though as it determines the effective surface area of each 'plate'.

So in these systems, the goal is effectively to maximize dielectric displacement current and to minimize conventional conduction current.


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Hakasays
Quote
Capacitive coupling is a good way to describe it. Except IMO the top terminal of the Extra coil acts as a 'virtual ground', and the lower terminal becomes one plate of the capacitor.

Depending on tuning and efficiency, the wire connecting the two coils then begins to behave more as a dielectric than as a conductor, which is why little or no conduction current shows up in it, and why transfer efficiency starts to go through the roof.

That's really interesting stuff and I was doing some experiments on both ends of the spectrum relating to radiation and detection.

I was wondering how far a given potential could travel over the Earth and how sensitive the equipment would need to be to detect it. So I built a very sensitive series/cascading charge detector array and had some strange results. For example, a person could easily measure a change in potential on the end of a 100 foot 20ga wire attached to only one terminal of a 12v battery. It worked the same for a concrete floor and we could use one wire of a battery or simply touch the floor with our hand and trigger the circuit over 30 feet away. It could detect people walking in the house, turning on a light, vehicles driving by or a gust of wind outside.

So the notion that everything has some effect on everything else seems to have some merit. I think what your talking about is definitely doable, it's just a matter of building a better emitter and detector system.

Regards
AC


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...Depending on tuning and efficiency, the wire connecting the two coils then begins to behave more as a dielectric than as a conductor, which is why little or no conduction current shows up in it...

This is what is claimed everywhere in alternative circles. But I checked it and it is not the case. As already mentioned elsewhere, using a carbon wire much thinner than a hair, and in a quasi-stationary regime as here where the length of the wire remains small compared to the wavelength, the wire ignites with even a small current and everything happens according to conventional electromagnetism.


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I built a very sensitive series/cascading charge detector array and had some strange results. For example, a person could easily measure a change in potential on the end of a 100 foot 20ga wire attached to only one terminal of a 12v battery. It worked the same for a concrete floor and we could use one wire of a battery or simply touch the floor with our hand and trigger the circuit over 30 feet away. It could detect people walking in the house, turning on a light, vehicles driving by or a gust of wind outside.

Awesome project. ;D  I did something similar a few years back that worked on similar principles.   Very hard to balance the cascade though..

Quote
So the notion that everything has some effect on everything else seems to have some merit. I think what your talking about is definitely doable, it's just a matter of building a better emitter and detector system.

Also consider that at resonance, both coil-capacitors are 180deg in opposition, so when one coil is 'pushing' the other coil is 'pulling'.
Adrian refers to this as 'setting up the cavity'.  Can be hard to get established but once you do then the two coils are effectively entangled.   I hypothesized that they may be entangled extra-luminally, that modulating the fields of one may have an immediate effect on the other.


Without a proper thruline RF Bird meter it will be difficult to take precise measurements.  I can use a lumen meter to measure bulb brightness but I think I'll also try rectifying the Rx primary output to DC and see how it affects activity.


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Eric Dollard commented on the very first accidental telluric experiments he performed, before he'd even heard of Tesla.

He was messing with a single Tesla Extra coil (air-core high Q resonant quarter-wave coil), observing all its interesting properties, and got a call from a friend a town over telling him he was 'on the air' even though there was no antenna.  That was when he realized the ground was acting as a transmission point. :)


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 That was when he realized the ground was acting as a transmission point. :)

To transmit, you need a current. A generator always has two terminals for the output, so you need to present it with a certain impedance so that it can supply current, i.e. connect it between something and something else.
When you don't, this impedance still exists because of the capacitance between the ground of the device and the earth.

If the antenna is dipolar, the RF current is sent between the two elements.
If it is a monopole, the current is sent between the ground or a ground plane, and the radiating element.
If the antenna is a magnetic loop, the current is sent between the two ends. One can even make loops using the ground on a part of the circuit.

It is the current that radiates, and even the ground can radiate if there is a current flowing through it, especially near the generator. This is not very efficient and if the signal is received not far away, it does not mean that you are transmitting across the ground, it means that the ground is a radiating part of the antenna system. It would really take great distances to affirm this, like through the earth.


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It is the current that radiates, and even the ground can radiate if there is a current flowing through it, especially near the generator. This is not very efficient and if the signal is received not far away, it does not mean that you are transmitting across the ground, it means that the ground is a radiating part of the antenna system.

Based on what we've documented so far, I suspect there are two separate modes involved in telluric communication.

Conduction current, which creates a 'ripple' in Earth ground potential as you noted that is likely also reflected into skywave propagation.  This might also be the 'Zenneck' wave but I haven't researched this wave enough to confirm if it fits or not.

Displacement current, which is more efficient but requires both the transmitter and receiver to be actively resonating.  Also makes it far more difficult to establish over distance.

I suspect Eric's early accidental success was the first variety.


And even thought the Extra coil does not radiate itself, it may be participating indirectly as something like an EH antenna.  That explains why our crude outdoor tests tend to succeed while indoor tests do not.

It might also be that the 160m band is simply too high frequency to achieve good propagation.  We do know Tesla was working in the 50-80khz region for most of his telluric experiments, that may have been by necessity. C.C


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On the principles, you are right, but the devil is in the details.

Varying a potential cannot lead to a real effect if we do not have another reference potential and between the two appears the useful voltage. Varying the earth potential, but in relation to what?

Then the displacement current operates only at a very short distance, because it is between two conductors, the impedance to be crossed is that of the capacity of the capacitor that they constitute.
If they are too far from each other, not only does the current become infinitesimal, but the "third electrode", the earth, loops the current before it reaches the second electrode. My experiments with capacitive connections between a high wire and a plate with an amplifier did not exceed 50 meters, with a voltage of 1 KV and a frequency of 2 KHz (low frequency to avoid EM waves).

As for EH antennas, radio amateurs have generally abandoned them, they do not radiate better than the others. In the far field, E and H are always formed even if the antenna generates only E or only H, it is useless to try to generate them separately at the source. The main difference is only in the near field.

Zenneck waves are classical electromagnetic waves, solutions of Maxwell's equations, propagating on the surface of a conductive area. At the surface of the earth, and especially at the surface of sea water, the propagation is largely facilitated. It is necessary that the wavelengths are large compared to the "defects" of the surface, such as swell at sea or trees, buildings and hills on land. AM broadcasting and the maritime service in particular benefit from this, but it requires wavelengths at least hectometric (frequencies < 2.5 MHz).

The 160 m works for Zenneck waves on land and water. Frequencies 100 times lower (< 20 KHz) are used for links with submarines around the world, but even with the MW of military equipment, the signals remain weak:  the antennas are not very efficient because their dimensions become too small and too close to the ground compared to the wavelengths (15 Km at 20 Khz).

But I think that what you are looking for are waves of another nature than Hertzian waves, like hypothetical longitudinal waves. There all hopes are allowed but for my part I could never put in evidence them.


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perhaps longitudinal waves do exist: (see attached)
   
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perhaps longitudinal waves do exist: (see attached)

Thanks for the file, Grumpy. It's very much in line with what I was talking about. I have read the text and will have to read it again.
I agree with many of the points but some of the others seem a bit dubious, like the link to gravitational waves. Moreover the level of the received signal has been measured but not calculated, so that the experiment cannot verify the theory except qualitatively.
I retain the idea of a spherical charge which expands and contracts as a means of generating this longitudinal wave by radial currents without a magnetic field. Seen from a distance, this charge does not change, so we should always see the same coulombic field. But a back and forth of energy is necessary for the movement, and it must be found somewhere, perhaps in this wave. There is an interesting lead.


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You may recall Tesla's infamous "radiant energy" devices that collected a charge to do useful work.  They had a plate and a ground connection.
These can be seen here:
https://teslaresearch.jimdofree.com/radiant-energy/

Notice that Tesla listed a couple of alternative sources of this energy, hence the device may serve as a detector.

I believe this is what Tesla's devices detected/collected. 

Is the longitudinal scalar wave a mechanism to separate charge, even if it appears weak?


   

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Quote
Then the displacement current operates only at a very short distance, because it is between two conductors, the impedance to be crossed is that of the capacity of the capacitor that they constitute.
If they are too far from each other, not only does the current become infinitesimal, but the "third electrode", the earth, loops the current before it reaches the second electrode.

The range and power transfer via displacement current increase proportional to frequency and voltage, and while there is propagation loss it is of a different nature than a conductor (partly because it is directly coupled).
It's the equal-opposite of conduction current, which becomes most efficient at DC and high current.

I think monopolar displacement currents would help explain the strong dielectric properties that Tesla Extra coils exhibit, as well as the unique induction they produce inside vacuum bulbs.   Plasma formations tend to have a different 'character' compared to standard RF currents.


You may recall Tesla's infamous "radiant energy" devices that collected a charge to do useful work.  They had a plate and a ground connection.
These can be seen here:
https://teslaresearch.jimdofree.com/radiant-energy/

The most intriguing and repeatable in the descriptions IMO is what appears to be monopolar (DC) capacitor charging.  Eric Dollard experienced this with a spark-gap quenched Extra coil in the old 80's Borderlands videos.  I should probably replicate that sometime as it's relatively straightforward and yet clearly anomalous.


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