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Author Topic: William ENKI  (Read 6633 times)

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William ENKI on youtube is "Twisting my melon"

The guy is showing what appears to be a myriad of overunity devices all rather explicitly described in detail..

Demonstrates what looks to be genuine overunity with adapted Don smith designs / modified joule thiefs etc.

He's surely a controversial character, claims some interesting things otherwise too (read the comments - lol) his choice of language / manner of speaking to people is undoubtedly questionable.. regardless, he seems to be overtly showing how to put these things together, and seems to be spending a LOT of money in the process..


Is the channel an elaborate hoax in order to get people to order stuff they never receive? (as I have read several times)

Or are some of the circuits he is building legitimately overunity, self running and imminently practicable?
If so, which?
(This of course, being the shining goal for myself and many others)


This could be seen as a stupid question, given the amount of content he has released, however - I have yet to see more proof than lightbulbs being lit and numbers on screens.. where's the footage of (for example) a 2kw washing machine
 being run off one of these multiple 00KW devices?
How about an ebike with no battery? This could be easily demonstrated if they provide the amount of power claimed..

Without being too cynical - as some of those videos really are very interesting - why are more demanding loads not demonstrated?

What are peoples' thought on this matter?

   
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https://www.overunityresearch.com/index.php?topic=4388.msg102114#msg102114
Member ifarrand has done business there
I seem to remember a “not so good” result? (EDIT yes post #32 above link)
Perhaps he can contribute some input?

Would be good to establish an outcome…
   

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Thanks for the link Chet - That was an interesting read.. To me it's still undecided .. Hope lfarrand replies

« Last Edit: 2023-09-02, 13:03:12 by Excelsior »
   
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Hi folks. I've been following William on YouTube for a while. I was originally sceptical about his claims, but I've since warmed to the idea that high frequency (20kHz+) charging of a capacitor to a high voltage coupled together with a low frequency discharge (50/60Hz) is the way to 'over 99% efficiency'.

This was the operating principle of the Don Smith devices. I'm still sceptical about the claims that the wire lengths contribute anything positive to the arrangement. Don Smith said that the only things you need are a capacitor and earth ground. The rest of the components were just for show as 'people expected to see them'.

In my opinion, it was also most likely the operating principle of the EV Gray capacitive discharge motor, since they charged high voltage capacitors and discharged them through a load. Ignoring the subterfuge involving the grenade coil, which I think was a distraction to keep people guessing, Kapanadze's devices also appear to have used the same selection of components - capacitors, transistors, diodes & SCR. There are parallels with a lot of overunity devices.

I agree that his manner and choice of language is not very civil, and some of his other interests are questionable. With that said, I do think he is on to something. He has many years of experience in this area and has quite in depth knowledge of Tesla's patents and Don Smith's work.

I purchased one of William's earlier devices - the 'Big & Scary', which was actually just a collection of cheap Chinese components sourced from AliExpress. The board consists of a DC/DC converter coupled with a ZVS and transformer. I'm in the process of attempting to measure the input & output, which is tricky at the best of times. I will need to discharge the capacitors through an isolation transformer using an SCR, then measure the power output through a load resistor. I'm hoping to do this in the next few days.

If any of you have ideas on how to perform accurate power measurements then please feel free to share them.
   
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Hi Lee,

Regarding power measurements, on the output side perhaps applicable to rectify the output by full wave fast diode bridge and filter it to feed relatively pure DC into a resistive load where DC voltage and current are easily measurable.

Alternatively, if you have a specific non-inductive resistor of 0.1 to 1 Ohm to use directly in series with the load, then you could utilize the Math function of your two channel oscilloscope to multiply the AC voltage drop across this resistor by the AC voltage taken across the load,  you would also get a good estimation on the AC power involved at the load. You surely know this method, Channel A receives say the AC voltage across the load and Channel B receives the AC voltage drop across the 0.1 Ohm or so non-inductive resistor, so that the scope can multiply the two channels and choose the Math function to display the Mean value.

Regarding input power,  perhaps the DC input current and voltage measurement is feasable directly at the DC source when you use a low pass filter between the output of the DC source and the device DC input.

Gyula
   

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Thanks for the type up @lfarrand - I have come to the same conclusion, he definitely is doing the work one way or another .. I suppose I speak for everyone here in thanking you for taking the risk of a purchase, for what clarity was obtained.

Assuming there actually is something to what Don said
(I believe so after seeing the 15 hours worth of lectures on YT - They're in my YT playlist "Over Unity")

My current understanding of all this is as follows:

(Excuse any misunderstanding as I have yet to actually attempt a Donsmith style design)

LC Tank circuit consisting of HV - HF frequency module-

(ENKI's ZVS/Don's inverter/I plan to try and use the SATG for this)

Fed into an appropriate capacitor,

alongside the capacitance of the coil installed alongside it
(the connections still f*ck me up a bit   :D still trying to grasp the fundamental principle involved)

"cancel" each other out and produce a longitudinal impulse which "transcends" the coil itself and resonates with others of its kin..

No / very little current should flow in the primary as the LC components and the corresponding secondary's / receiving antennae are ideally beta matched and if the capacitance values etc are in correct order, the previous cycles' charge acts in opposition to the incoming oscillation - meanwhile the ongoing production and collapse of "magnetic fields" "excite the electrons" in the other "djeds" at no cost as no time was taken for the "scalar impulse" to "arrive" and thus, a ferrite core or better should be used in these applications as iron won't react fast enough, and will incur hysteresis losses,

If Enkis "TPU" unit in this video : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KjdKdLfDwAI

has useable over-energy properties at all, and it's power can be shared amongst other pancake secondaries without loading the source, this is where a large portion of our focus should be, surely? why waste input power on eddy current losses in even a specialized piezo-fancypants ferrite core transformer, when air core could be tuned to give looped OU by itself?

I feel there is much misunderstanding around this topic, intentional or otherwise, I am for sure guilty of my fair share but a "dumbing down" of this topic is for sure in order.. I plan to grasp the most basic principles involved and attempt a small replication at some point over the next year or so - only just started going down the "rabbit hole" on this one..

To my understanding, the components required are :

HF - HV - AC module fed into -

3 wire Step up Transformer / NST fed into -
(ground connection necessary for OU? DS says no?
if "Air ground is sufficient why stress about 3 wire if DIY'ing w/ SG's / AG's?)

Spark gap & Capacitor
(Don also says SG also not necessary?)

Appropriate FBR Fed into -

Appropriate capacitor bank

The capacitor bank then powers the HV module, with a limiter of some kind on it.

In the PJK book, Patrick explains a way to loop an OU - flyback based device, in that one can use a choke on the oscillator input, to allow the impulse to be absorbed more effectively back into the drive bat/cap/batcap etc..
Just a thought that could be relevant to this device too perhaps?
   

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=59SOpvlkTYg

"-- In a system of electrical conversion, the combination of a generator or source of electricity and a. line or generating circuit containing a condenser or possessing capacity, and a working circuit ope'ratively connected with the generating-circuit through one or the working circuit will be maintained, as set forth."
   

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Some other peoples' revisions :

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N79BfmWI8a8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2d35GVx6eI

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D86G7Hg3Rak&t=126s

It's interesting to compare the results and the components used ..

Don pretty much stated that the basic operating principle is open to interpretation ..

I like the idea of using 48v induction module personally .. the transformer seems to be the only bulky component.

I wonder if an entirely different form factor could be used - overlapping grids perhaps?

It astounds me that this technology has been so powerfully supressed as to be magic to most people..

Gerard Morin spoke / speaks about this .. I agree wholeheartedly ..
   
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Hi Lee,

Regarding power measurements, on the output side perhaps applicable to rectify the output by full wave fast diode bridge and filter it to feed relatively pure DC into a resistive load where DC voltage and current are easily measurable.

Alternatively, if you have a specific non-inductive resistor of 0.1 to 1 Ohm to use directly in series with the load, then you could utilize the Math function of your two channel oscilloscope to multiply the AC voltage drop across this resistor by the AC voltage taken across the load,  you would also get a good estimation on the AC power involved at the load. You surely know this method, Channel A receives say the AC voltage across the load and Channel B receives the AC voltage drop across the 0.1 Ohm or so non-inductive resistor, so that the scope can multiply the two channels and choose the Math function to display the Mean value.

Regarding input power,  perhaps the DC input current and voltage measurement is feasable directly at the DC source when you use a low pass filter between the output of the DC source and the device DC input.

Gyula

Thanks Gyula. I am rectifying the output using a fast FWBR (SiC Schottky diodes) into capacitors, so I can at least see the DC voltage accumulating there at the moment. The problem is seeing how much power is available to power a load, and determining if the capacitor can be replenished fast enough. I'd prefer to avoid AC measurements as I know they are more complex and could introduce errors.

Measuring the input power is difficult even though I'm using an inline power meter which displays voltage and current. The problem is that I don't know how fast this device reacts and whether or not it is able to detect transient spikes such as when the current spikes initially for a very small time period when charging a capacitor through a low resistance. The power meter might display an average value and as such miss out on those transient spikes, which would then lead to errors and wrong conclusions.

I think the only way to prove one way or the other if the output is more than the input is to loop the device. I think designing a system that is originally started from a capacitor discharge is the way to go. Charge the capacitor initially from a 9V battery then kick it off and recharge that start capacitor from the rectified output. This is the direction I'm heading in.
   
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Thanks for the type up @lfarrand - I have come to the same conclusion, he definitely is doing the work one way or another .. I suppose I speak for everyone here in thanking you for taking the risk of a purchase, for what clarity was obtained.

No worries, I'm happy to take one for the team :)

I know if I didn't buy it to see for myself then I would have regretted it if the opportunity got away. I paid for it in Bitcoin which I had accumulated in the past, so it didn't really cost me anything tangible.

I think the high level summary of how the Don Smith devices work is:

1. Charge a low capacitance (10pF) to a high voltage (4,000V+) at high frequency (20kHz+)
2. Discharge this energy into a coil
3. Rectify the output into a smoothing capacitor (high capacitance at lower voltage)
4. Output DC to load or through an isolation transformer as 50/60Hz AC

I actually think you can skip step 2 (discharging into a coil) and simply just charge capacitors to high voltage and then use this to charge another capacitor or bank of capacitors to a lower voltage / higher capacitance.

Here are some examples to show how voltage is much more important when trying to increase energy using capacitors.

  • 10pF 4000V is 0.00008J
  • 100pF 4000V is 0.0008J (capacitance x10 = energy x10)
  • 10pF 40000V is 0.08J (voltage x10 = energy x100)

The other benefit of charging a low capacitance to high voltage is that due to t=RC (capacitor time constant), if C is low then the time to charge will be low. My theory is that this requires fewer electrons, hence low current, since there will be fewer electrons excited to a high voltage rather than more electrons (higher capacitance) excited to a lower voltage. Higher capacitance means more electrons since there is more 2D space to fill.

I found this which I thought was very interesting: https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/download/160/257

Here's a quote from that article:

Quote
This is the reason it has been proven and verified that the energy stored and released by the discharge of the capacitor through the resistor is equal according to the conventionally known laws of physics, which is expressed by the capacitor energy (1), which reflects only the attractive part of the stored energy.

The conversion of the repulsive potential energy into electrical current happens only when there is a discharge device in the circuit that allows the charges to travel following the repulsive electrostatic force lines through space like spark gap, cold cathode tube, and/or vacuum tubes which are the examples of the devices that allow the charges to jump out of the conductor into space so that the stored repulsive electrostatic potential energy can be materialized into kinetic energy and consequently into the electrical current of the usable form.

Therefore, there was an omission of the repulsive electrostatic potential energy in the theoretical calculation of the stored energy in the capacitors, and incomplete experimental verification by releasing the electric charge through a resistive load, thereby unintentionally blocking the repulsive potential energy from manifesting itself into kinetic energy.

These were two fundamental misconceptions that resulted in the conventional physical law of local energy conservation in charged capacitors in electrodynamics. However, two errors, both theoretical and experimental, that mutually confirm each other to be accurate, do not necessarily prove that the involved scientific principle is valid.

The earlier cases of unusual energy-producing devices reported by Nikola Tesla (Tesla, 1901), T. H. Moray (, 1944), and others have consistently used discharge circuit elements such as spark gaps, cold cathode tubes, and vacuum tubes in their devices, which confirms the space-discharge to electrical-current-gain mechanism, which contributed to the workings of their devices, whether the engineers performing the experiment recognized the anomalous excess energy creation effect or not at the time.

From these examples, we conclude that the key mechanism for utilizing the additional electrostatic potential energy stored in the capacitor is by converting the repulsive potential energy into electrical current by letting the accumulated charges in the capacitor discharge through space before allowing them to recombine and let the total energy manifest at the power load.

Certain solid-state electronic devices with multiple layers of semiconductor junctions, for example, Sidac ("SIDAC Thyristors,"), among others, were developed in the 1950s and have a negative resistance property in their I-V discharge curves, as shown in Fig. 1.

Here's a video posted by the author of that article, explaining pretty much the same thing that the article does: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NhXV3ca1J6g&t=19s&ab_channel=EugeneJeong

I think there might be something in this. It's interesting to note that a spark gap, vacuum tube or multilayer solid state device are required for the effect to manifest.
   
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I'd also like to add that I think the ground connection is a red herring. From my tests it appears as though the ground is acting as a simple relatively low conductor and isn't adding or capturing electrons in the circuit. There may be some other factor affecting this such as using resistors, diodes or some other exotic component arrangement, but I haven't seen any positive effect from using an earth ground so far.

When I did a test of shorting a battery using two separate earth grounds, I noticed the resistance was intially quite high (kilo-ohms to mega-ohms) but it dropped to 0 ohms after several seconds. When I then disconnected the battery and measured the resistance, the resistance starts at 0 ohms and then quickly rises back to the kilo-ohms to mega-ohms over several seconds. Very strange.
   
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Actually, I'd like to retract my comment about not seeing any positive results using the earth ground.

I've just performed some tests and got a curious result.

I charged a 18uF 1.1kV metallized polypropylene film capacitor (Panasonic EZPV1B186MTB) with my bench power supply set to 100V. I then shorted it across a short length of 2.5mm^2 (1.73mm diameter) copper wire a number of times. It got REALLY hot (I pressed it against my lips to judge the temp) and the wire was damaged (pock marks) where it came into contact with the capacitor leads.

I then connected the positive lead of the bench power supply to an 8ft earth ground rod that I have knocked all the way into the ground. I connected the negative lead of the bench power supply to one side of the capacitor, and then another earth connection to a different ground rod to the other side of the capacitor. I then performed the same test as before, shorting the same copper wire a number of times. When I pressed the wire against my lips it was room temperature and wasn't warm at all. The damage to the points where the wire came into contact with the capacitor leads also looked less severe.

Obviously using one's lips to judge temperature isn't very scientific, but I was struggling to measure the temp with a handheld infrared temperature gun. In any case, the wire was obviously extremely hot in the first test and room temp in the second test. There wasn't even a shadow of a doubt about the difference, it was night and day.

I measured the voltage across the capacitor with a multimeter and it was 100V in both tests.

What explanation can there be for this curious outcome?
   
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Hi Lee,

Sorry, for me it is not fully clear how you discharged the capacitor when the ground connections were used?  I mean what was the circuit like?  Did you mean the discharge by the piece of wire was done again directly across the capacitor like in the 1st test where there were no connections?

Gyula
   
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Hi Lee,

Sorry, for me it is not fully clear how you discharged the capacitor when the ground connections were used?  I mean what was the circuit like?  Did you mean the discharge by the piece of wire was done again directly across the capacitor like in the 1st test where there were no connections?

Gyula

Yes I literally just placed the wire across both terminals of the capacitor to short it out.



I connected the power supply positive to ground because I wanted a negative voltage vs earth ground. It worked the same way if I connected the power supply negative to ground and positive to the cap terminal, i.e. I saw the same effect.

When I shorted the cap with the power supply +ve & -ve connected then the power supply limited the output to 0W to prevent a short circuit, but this didn't happen when connected via ground.

Maybe I'm missing something obvious to explain the difference in heating of the copper wire, so feel free to share any thoughts you have. I'm all ears.
   
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Thanks for the drawing, it is clear now. 

My explanation is that in Test 2 the power supply was able to provide much less additional current to the piece of wire than in Test 1 because the ground resistance inherently limited the power supply current.

This means that just discharging the 100 V charged capacitor alone, without the presence of the power supply, would not heat up as much the piece of wire than with the presence of the power supply. 

It is okay that the power supply limited the output to 0 W to prevent a short circuit but such process needs a certain time to take place and within this small time the wire surely received additional current from the supply, besides from the capacitor.   This would explain why this did not happen when connection was via the ground. 

Gyula

   
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Thanks for your feedback Gyula, it is very much appreciated. I'm a relative newcomer to this game, so I'm happy to learn from your experience. This was the direction I was leaning to after I posted my last message.

With that said, I just ran another test with the capacitor connected to the power supply and my bench power supply current limited to 0.05A. It was previously set to 2.2A (max setting). I noticed that the capacitor took several seconds to charge to 100V, whereas before it was almost instant. The copper wire was still heating up significantly.

I then set the current limit back to 2.2A, connected the capacitor as in test 2 above and re-ran the same test. The power supply flashed up a number of values for the current, swinging between 0A and 2.2A, and the capacitor charged to 100V quicker than in the modified test above. The copper wire didn't heat up at all.

I'll make a video tomorrow to show what I'm seeing. I'm sure there is probably a prosaic explanation for it.
   
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Lee,  I would like to add some more comments to the tests described in your last but one post with the schematic above.

Your power supply (PS) surely has an internal  electrolytic capacitor usually directly across the output terminals for filtering and very likely it has a higher uF capacity than the 18 uF you use for the tests.
I mention this because this capacitor should also need some discharge time right after the internal short circuit protection takes effect and can supply huge initial current towards the piece of wire till it discharges. 

The Panasonic EZPV1B186MTB 18 uF has an Equivalent Series Resistance of (ESR) 8.5 milliOhm specified at 10 kHz and practically the 100 V charged voltage in it can initiate an extremely high peak current in the shorting wire (data sheet says 900 A peak current is permissible max for this type). Of course, the peak current depends on the total resistance of the connecting wires you use between the PS output terminals and the capacitor connectors.

The capacitor inside the PS can provide a similarly huge (or even higher than the one coming from the 18 uF cap) peak current to the shorting wire and these two huge peak currents heat it up in your Test 1.

In your Test 2, the huge discharge current coming from the PS must have been largely missing because the resistance between the two grounds surely limits peak current, ground resistance is very likely much higher than some milliOhm.   Note: unfortunately, ground resistances can be nonlinear and may even change overnight, for instance from wet weather etc.

Finally, you may wish to check the voltages if there is any "ground loop voltage", using a digital voltmeter, with the PS set to 100 V between

1) your PS negative output and its own ground connection you indicated in green in your schematic above (maybe the negative terminal is ground independent?) and make sure there is no ground #1 and / or ground #2 connected to the power supply this time

2) your PS negative output and ground #2 and then ground #1

3) your PS positive output and ground #1 and #2 (here you may find some part of the 100 V output?)

4) between ground #1 and #2.

I do not assume there is a considerable unwanted voltage difference between the above points, just it is good to know such can be excluded from the circuit.

I would comment your latest test tomorrow, the video will surely help explaining it.

Thanks for you kind efforts.

Gyula
   
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Hi Gyula,

Thanks for your comprehensive post, which made a lot of sense. It just goes to show how transients that meters aren't fast enough to react to can sometimes give a false impression. That's why I'm a bit sceptical about the measuring protocol that Enki is employing, since he is using simple DMMs and in line watt meters to judge input & output. I want to learn the errors of my ways from these simple experiments so that I can be wary of them in future.

Conn 1Conn 2Voltage
PS -VEPS GND    10mV
PS -VEEarth GND 1    3mV
PS -VEEarth GND 2    0.5mV
PS +VEEarth GND 1    15mV
PS +VEEarth GND 2    10mV
Earth GND 1Earth GND 2    0.324V
PS GNDEarth GND 1    0.235V
PS GNDEarth GND 2    95mV

To prove your theory about the PSU capacitor discharging instantly before the current limiting function had chance to kick in, I connected a 500W 100ohm resistor in line with the PS -VE and then re-ran the tests I did above. In both cases the copper wire remained cool, so it looks like the PSU capacitor discharge through a low resistance was causing the behaviour. As you say, the resistance of the earth is significantly higher so it was acting as a resistor to slow down the discharge which resulted in the wire remaining cool.
   
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Hi Lee,

Thank you for doing these tests.

The some millivolts you find between the outputs of -VE, +VE of the PS and the Earth GNDs are low and negligible.

The 0.324 V between the two Earth GNDs indicate that an earth battery, a kind of galvanic or voltaic cell is formed by the two metal rods with the soil in between them. The internal resistance of such cell is normally high, may range from some hundred Ohms to several kOhms, depending on the conductivity of the local soil, this means that the current such cell is able to provide is rather small, in the range of uA or a few mA. They behave as a current source rather than a voltage source and could feed a Joule thief circuit for instance which is optimized for running at 0.2 - 0.3 V 'battery' voltages and flashes up a white LED.
 
So we can now be certain that the ground connections used in these tests did not bring in anomaly.

Your latest test with the 100 Ohm in series with the PS -VE terminal indicates that the energy stored in the internal capacitor of the PS was the main source for heating up the shorting wire, the 18 uF cap contributed but a little.

Gyula
   
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Hi Lee,

Thank you for doing these tests.

The some millivolts you find between the outputs of -VE, +VE of the PS and the Earth GNDs are low and negligible.

The 0.324 V between the two Earth GNDs indicate that an earth battery, a kind of galvanic or voltaic cell is formed by the two metal rods with the soil in between them. The internal resistance of such cell is normally high, may range from some hundred Ohms to several kOhms, depending on the conductivity of the local soil, this means that the current such cell is able to provide is rather small, in the range of uA or a few mA. They behave as a current source rather than a voltage source and could feed a Joule thief circuit for instance which is optimized for running at 0.2 - 0.3 V 'battery' voltages and flashes up a white LED.
 
So we can now be certain that the ground connections used in these tests did not bring in anomaly.

Your latest test with the 100 Ohm in series with the PS -VE terminal indicates that the energy stored in the internal capacitor of the PS was the main source for heating up the shorting wire, the 18 uF cap contributed but a little.

Gyula

Thanks. Mystery solved :)

Now I'll move on to the next small step towards the ultimate goal.

I've been watching Enki's latest videos about his NEXT device. It all makes sense when he describes it end to end. I do think that he will have some timing issues in trying to coordinate the various stages of his device. He's using off the shelf components connected together in primitive fashion, such as cutting off power to the DC/DC buck converter using a MOSFET triggered by a PWM board. I'm guessing that there is a significant latency involved in that action alone. The buck converter surely has a short time period when it first starts, to prime capacitors etc.

I think a holistic system built with an Arduino or similar to coordinate the timings using PWM channels is the way to go. You can then use the PWM channels to set duty cycle and frequency independently and turn off channels at certain points as required. It is difficult to coordinate all that with off the shelf components cobbled together.
   

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I wish Will would be more clear about things .. He's becoming Don Smith .. why be so cryptic?

He has a few good simplex explanations of the concepts behind the ground-electron pump style of device and lots of other interesting stuff dgmw, but no "real" loads are shown being powered ..

You could certainly imagine that his many devices work and he just doesn't show that because of the potential grief
(I don't think he's bothered about that personally after reading the comments  C.C  ;D)

So why not show something undeniable?
That would definitely make him a million "subs", overnight ..

I think he is missing the "maxime magnae pars" like the rest of us..
Or I could be wrong and he has indeed subtly shown us what to do, and I am blind to it in my inexperience..

I suspect the way to get looped OU from a Don Smith device is probably subtle and is still a "trade secret" like many things are.

I do not believe that, there is no way to do what we aim to accomplish.. at least, if not this device, then another will work, if properly constructed.. ..


Anyone who inflicts my YT playlist upon themselves should agree afterwards..
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLpuBp-WaqFobl1olMsCLo1hzwvTIewbvj

   

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@lfarrand & @ gyula thanks for the contribution. keep it coming  O0

I'd like to see a rig that has been designed in such a way that a true ground connection is not needed,

Seeing as the volume of the soil around the spike is the supposed source of fe in this setup,

perhaps an "accumulator" of sorts could be used instead, a "source of electrons" but a chassis ground / bond ..

something something surface area.. something something electret..

The practicality of relying on an earth connection leaves something to be desired ..

Besides, if this device runs on telluric currents / background energy then surely a table height isn't too far for potentials to equalize?
   
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Enki just posted some new comments about earth grounding:

Quote
Don Smith really played the Earth grounding card to cover up the simplicity of the discharge

Quote
Amps are accumulated over time and discharge instantaneously from the capacitor do enough instantaneous Dumps  in the right amount of time and you have tremendous power

I had come to the same conclusion a few days ago. Earth ground isn't giving anything except a common reference point, and acting as a relatively high resistance conductor.

The magic is happening in the capacitor.

Quote
Intensity can be found by taking the energy density (energy per unit volume) at a point in space and multiplying it by the velocity at which the energy is moving. The resulting vector has the units of power divided by area (i.e., surface power density). The intensity of a wave is proportional to the square of its amplitude. For example, the intensity of an electromagnetic wave is proportional to the square of the wave's electric field amplitude.
Intensity (physics) - Wikipedia

Quote
Intensity is proportional to the square of the amplitude. So if the amplitude of a sound is doubled, its intensity is quadrupled.
Power is also proportional to the square of the amplitude.
Therefore, power and intensity are proportional to each other.
What is amplitude? - Indiana University

Discharging a capacitor through an extremely low resistance will give you a super high peak of power burst over an extremely small time period, a coherent power wave if you like. Since power is proportional to the square of the amplitude, then it's obvious to see that a higher peak will yield much more power. If you discharged the same capacitor over a longer period through a higher resistance then the accumulated power would also be much lower.

A disruptive discharge is what Nikola Tesla called the event of a capacitor, charged to its maximum capacity, discharging all of its stored energy with extreme suddenness through a spark gap, creating oscillating currents in the circuit.

I'd like to remind people of this quote from Nikola Tesla:

Quote
Yes, but with another kind of circuit I could, of course. The advantage of this apparatus was the delivering of energy at short intervals whereby one could increase activity, and with this scheme I was able to perform all of those wonderful experiments which have been reprinted from time to time in the technical papers. I would take energy out of a circuit at rates of hundreds or thousands of horsepower. In Colorado, I reached 18 million horsepower activities, but that was always by this device: Energy stored in the condenser and discharged in an inconceivably small interval of time. You could not produce that activity with an undamped wave. The damped wave is of advantage because it gives you, with a generator of 1 kilowatt, an activity of 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, or 5,000 kilowatts; whereas, if you have a continuous or undamped wave, 1 kilowatt gives you only wave energy at the rate of 1 kilowatt and nothing more. That is the reason why the system with a quenched gap has become popular.

I have refined this so that I have been able to take energy out of engines by drawing on their momentum. For instance, if the engine is of 200 horsepower, I take the energy out for a minute interval of time, at a rate of 5,000 or 6,000 horsepower, then I store [it] in a condenser and discharge the same at the rate of several millions of horsepower. That is how these wonderful effects are produced. The condenser is the most wonderful instrument, as I have stated in my writings, because it enables us to attain greater activities than are practical with explosives. There is no limit to the energy which you can develop with a condenser. There is a limit to the energy which you can develop with an explosive
Nikola Tesla on his work with alternating currents
   

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Good writeup and thankyou for the link. That's a great resource I wasn't aware of.


What would be considered the most technical or difficult aspect of achieving such a limitless supply?

Sourcing the capacitors is no biggie these days

I expect the difficulty lies in tuning the variable caps / resistors precisely?

Or is the transformer the problem? Beta matching everything to within X%?
HV module sets the frequency in the primary iinm .. variac / buck + vzs used to dial power level
Is taking the power off / reading the amps on output the main challenge?

what difficulties are encountered in one of these replications?

As soon as I have a firmer grasp on the basics I will put something together to share & improve.


Don said "You don't need to understand what you're doing to do this" I beg to differ .. lol
   
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