Hi Lawrence,

1. No energy can be gained from the Brownian motion of air molecules. The movement is random and therefore self-canceling in nature.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brownian_motion

2. Resonance is fully understood already. LCR resonance cannot "bring in" external energy. It's just a fantasy on your part with no theoretical basis and no experimental evidence.

3. The terms "open system" and "closed system" are almost meaningless concepts that are often mentioned on the free energy forums. "Open system" implies that energy can mysteriously come from "somewhere else" without ever defining the form of the energy or where it is supposed to come from. Therefore, no, energy cannot "flow in and out." One more time, that is a meaningless concept. Energy in from where? Energy out to where? What form of energy? These questions are never answered.

To answer your question about the tuning fork using your questionable terminology, a tuning fork is a closed system. It doesn't being in any energy from "elsewhere," you have to strike it to make it start vibrating.

The truth is that you can look at a system and deduce how energy flows through the system and how it gets transformed. Then you can make measurements to confirm your deductions. This has nothing to do with "open vs. closed" but rather it has everything to do with the reality of how the world actually works.

MileHigh

Dear MH,

Since this is a focused debate, we do not need to address all issues in a single reply. I shall focus on the first point – motion of air molecules in this reply.

You quoted the term – “Brownian motion” – to show that air molecules do move and hence possess kinetic energy. Your reference –

**Brownian motion** (named after Robert Brown, who first observed the motion in 1827, when he examined pollen grains in water) stated that the air molecules move with random motion.

**I fully agree with that.**The more in depth theory dealing with molecular motion is the Kinetic Theory of Gases as taught in Physics or Chemistry classes in High School. A simple reference is:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinetic_theoryNow I shall address the key substance of our debate –

**can a vibrating tuning fork change the random motion of the molecules into a pulsing order? Can that pulsing order do work? If so, can I conclusively prove mathematically that the energy to do work comes from the kinetic energy of the air molecules?**If I start with the trillions of randomly moving molecules in my head, I would be totally confused. Thus I start with the very simple model (and improve later) with the following assumptions:

1. Only one ball (representing a molecule) is involved in the collision with the oscillating piston (vibrating tuning fork).

2. The ball B1 is moving in the +X direction with velocity Ms. The mass of the ball is Mb.

3. The piston is moving in the –X direction with velocity Ps. The mass of the piston is Mp.

4. The collision is elastic – meaning that no energy is changed into heat, sound or deformation.

5. The motion is restricted to the X axis only.

6. After collision, the ball B1 will move in the –X direction with velocity M1s. The piston will still move in the –X direction with velocity P1s.

7. The ratio of mass of piston to ball is Y.

Once I use the above assumptions, the problem is greatly simplified. There are two Laws that must be obeyed – namely the Law of Conservation of Momentum and the Law of Conservation of Energy. Momentum is the product of mass time velocity and is a vector quantity (meaning direction must be taken into account). Energy in this case is the kinetic energy = 0.5*m*v*v. (I use the symbol * as the multiplication sign and v*v as the square of v).

With the above assumption, the Law of Conservation of Momentum states that the momentum before collision must be equal to the momentum after collision. Thus we have equation (1)

Mb*Ms – Mp*Ps = -Mb*M1s – Mp*P1s (the +ve and –ve signs are very important)

The Law of Conservation of Energy states that the kinetic energy before collision must be equal to the kinetic energy after collision. Thus we have equation (2)

0.5*Mb*Ms*Ms + 0.5*Mp*Ps*Ps = 0.5*Mb*M1s*M1s + 0.5*Mp*P1s*P1s

I shall pause here so that our moderator(s) can check and confirm the correctness of these two equations. In here, we are dealing strictly with Newtonian Mechanics. The equations cannot be wrong. (If they are wrong, Newtonian Mechanics is wrong!)

@MH, I hope that you follow the physics and mathematics so far. You are welcome to comment. (With Physics and Mathematics, once lost, the remaining discussion would be meaningless.)

** God provides the Divine Revelations. Physicists interpret them for the masses. It can be compared to Jesus turned water into wine. The Physicists tasted the wine and poured them out to the masses. Amen. **