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Author Topic: What is Known about the TPU  (Read 362469 times)

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And it has been shown many times the parallel wires terminated at the ends or connected together inside another perpendicular winding.
That sinking feeling occurs when I look at some of the complex coils I have that have a core of 1 run and not bifilar.
I post these pictures.
The one with the bursts is what Grumpy had posted about the 22 awg gauge performing and not the 28awg.
The gk4 wiring is what I saw SM talking about. If you have a piece of iron 'WIRE' in a magnetic field in any angular direction you have a collector. It will collect and then its parallel brother of copper can show current. So if you have a copper biased run it too will pickup any angular magnetic perturbation.

If any of this does not apply please comment. I don't think I am shooting blind.


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Well, I must be that stupid. However I think I have a good understanding on why charge moving in the wire, and how could be that movement diminish from different view points, I still don't understand why polarize the vacuum and pulse it sequentially to emulate a rotating dielectric, lead to free energy. It must be me, who can't have enough imagination to figure it out from one well explained sentence.

It look like as he state, it's an already proved working mechanism, and You and Him know that very well, built devices based on these principle, but sadly Grumpy and You can't tell more about that, we have to figure it out by ourself.

Well, and Grumpy have to add: It works!

Ohhh my, I see where it going again......

The Wilson Effect is already proven to generate a current.  If you can not bother to look it up in literature, then that is your problem. 

You still have not tried the experiment that I gave you, where you pulse a coil and hold a magnet near it to feel the change in the magnetic field.  Yet you still press for more explanations and more information.

No amount of explanation will help people that will not help themselves.
   
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I do not have a picture of the ring with four square holes, but it is easy to see that as the diameter of the ring increased, it would be necessary to add four plastic spacers per layer instead of two as used on the smaller diameter speaker designs. This would prevent the rings from cocking and providing an unsightly cosmetic design.
As for the chrome, this was chromed plastic "C" channel that was glued to the rings as an after operation, again for cosmetic purposes. Durban explained this to me and you can see the channels peeling away in some of the photos.
Here is a photo showing the chrome trim peeling away on a smaller, perhaps 6" diameter ring:

@ION

Thanks for that photo. If those are the disks, then they would have to be modified with the magnet squares, plus the outer diameter would have had to be trimmed down to about 1" wide for the rim where the coils are wound. Of course he could have had them custom made but it is obvious the influence of the OTPU disk design stems from his speaker grills.

Don't forget, FTPU(1), OTPU(1), MTPU(1) , LTPU(2) all have one or more toroid coils as the numbers indicate. Also, I know this is going back to the beginning but them damn toroid dimensions where never found to exist in any standard line of toroidal cores. You will never see a regular toroid core with those dimensions. Also, for such a massive core dimension, it is totally crazy to think a one layer 32 something coil turns will be able to effectively transfer anything from one coil to the other without major losses. But the dimension of the toroidal core falls in perfectly with dimension of standard speaker magnets on the market. I had researched that also.

Ha. Does anyone know why speakers use the magnets that they use since generations, we still use the same magnet types. Have you ever seen very big speakers using a 16oz. neo-magnet? Hmmmmmmmmmm. Not really.

So what if the toroid was not used for half/coil to half/coil coupling so let's just turn the theories completely on their heads once again.

What if the toroidal core was made of hard plastic having no coupling ability at all. Maybe a static deflection quality of a non permeable core. That would explain why the toroid coil wires sink into the core material. That would make the toroid a simple air core where any pulsing would be then available outwards and into the center of the toroid. Why? It would act like a smart or virtual speaker magnet.

Maybe that's why SM spent so much money on magnets, trying to find the perfect already available flux density that he could manipulate with a coil, but then realized it is very hard to do (I have tried it many times wrapping coils over magnets to deflect the field to then catch the deflection with another coil and it is very difficult to do and requires endless R&D), why not just make your own smart magnet that can deliver exactly the flux needed for the effect required.

But what is the effect required?

Let's go on, but, before that remember this one important thing. SM never showed anyone the toroids from underneath. Even in the OTPU, we can see the front or top of the toroid held vertically behind the circuit board, but we never see behind or under the toroid in all cases. What is constant in the toroids is that metallic bracket with the connection stubs. Now why would you build a toroid with two half coils of one layer, then go to all the trouble of mounting it on a metal bracket? Well, brackets are usually used to hold things together meaning in plural sense more then one thing is held with a bracket. But we only see one thing, the toroid. But there could easily be something under the toroid. In the FTPU, there is more then ample room for his first cruder build. Then in the OTPU it is hidden behind the circuit board, then in the MTPU and LTPU they were safely mounted on black boxes again offering room below the toroid.

You all know what SM flat out said "you can move a magnet a foot over one wire, or a foot over 1000 wires" and this is true when you do it 5 times per second or 100 times per second. Yes indeed. But you can also do the same thing by moving the magnet only 1 mm over a wire, 5000 times per second. SM was refering to the distance/time/frequency factor. He says it in feet, but it could be only mm's.

Now, think of how a speaker works. Speakers that he was working with for years. We all know how a speaker works, right. Outer magnet, speaker coil, inner metal core. So what if the SM Toroid is a smart speaker magnet, a speaker coil and an outer pickup coil all working in feedback mode.

I think the FTPU, OTPU, MTPU and LTPU produces their outputs 100% via the Toroids and what was under the Toroids. Everything else was distractions. At best the outer coils were acting both like a capacitor and an inductor for the sole purpose of storing gain, but the same coils could be made in so many ways.

I will stop here because those that will catch this post will understand I don't need to say much more because they have now caught onto a new line of thinking. Part of the TPU is real, the other parts are decoys, and knowing SM's high level of paranoia against industrial espionage, he would not have it any other way. I have prepared a diagram to show you guys what I am thinking. In the FTPU where SM put the magnet, then in the LTPU there were the same bracket terminals on the toroids but he never placed a magnet there. In the FTPU, the magnet was pre-biasing the center core as in the diagram, since the outer toroid was not a magnet from which a regular speaker core uses to be semi-magnetic.

wattsup



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Good points WattsUp.  I too was wondering about the strange dimensions of the toroids.

The Toroids also look EXACTLY LIKE VHS Tape painted white.  Look at the white toothed plate under each toroid in the LTPU.
It looks exactly like a VHS tape removed from its case.  He probably pulled out some tape in the center to make the ID larger.

What say you WattsUp?  Could it be VHS or Beta magnetic tape used as a Toroid?
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Good points WattsUp.  I too was wondering about the strange dimensions of the toroids.

The Toroids also look EXACTLY LIKE VHS Tape painted white.  Look at the white toothed plate under each toroid in the LTPU.
It looks exactly like a VHS tape removed from its case.  He probably pulled out some tape in the center to make the ID larger.

What say you Wattsup?  Could it be VHS or Beta magnetic tape used as a Toroid?
.

First of all I am sorry to distract from the present line of thinking.

Regarding tape as a toroid material, I don't think VHS or any other video tape material could be used since it is definitely not hard enough to support the amount of stress that is obviously inherent with winding the coils on the toroid. Painted or not, the tape would have given way much more then as seen. I think the toroid core is hard plastic
or another hard material, maybe semi-permeable but not ferrite or iron. It could be an aluminum toroid, but I would put my money on hard plastic or even wood. But plastic like plexi-glass either one thickness or several layers would do the trick.

wattsup

Added: Also as seen on the diagram I made, the pick up coil leads and the bucking coil leads exit from the toroid center and since both are from different sources, that would explain why the 4 wire of the toroid are not identical in color and in gauge.

Lastly, when you really think about it, how many times did SM mention anything about the center toroids. Now what does this tell you. Now how many times did he talk about his outer windings. Now what does that tell you. Coul dit be that the more he talked about something, the less important it was, and the least he talked about something, the more important it was. from what i know, he never said anything about the toroids themselves.


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@Wattsup!,
Excellent sleuthing!
SM did put the clamp meter by the center toroids.
And the under coils you have would fit down the center of the otpu.
So what you presented definately redraws the line in the sand as far as the previous explanations go.
He let the speaker work as normal but without the paper cone?

This design would be easily enabled by a 555.
« Last Edit: 2011-05-02, 16:20:43 by giantkiller »


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IMO the most important clue to the nature of the TPU is the reported heat generation. It is a fairly well known fact that most battery types can be made to perform more efficiently when operating at an optimal temperature. To achieve this a process known as core preheating is used, whereby an AC pulsed current is applied to the battery for a period of time to increase its internal temperature, which in turn reduces its internal resistance and overall improves the working capacity of the battery. Most hybrid cars adopt this technique to improve battery performance, especially in cold weather conditions. I have seen the effects of this in EV race competitions where cars using 'doctored' batteries consistently outperform the rest of the field by a huge margin. This process works very well using Nicad batteries.

Its possible that SM knew this and employed a hidden Nicad battery set split into two halves whereby he used two separate say 10-20Khz heavy duty oscillators working in tandem, such that each oscillator output pulse current heated its partners battery in addition to driving the load to boost performance. This could easily generate the heat reported, especially if SM had found that high levels of core heating resulted in even higher capacity yield. The pulse frequency used is typically 0.5HZ at 50% duty. Most people studying the TPU had ruled out battery power on the basis of manufacturers capacity specification at normal working temperatures but I have always suspected that SM could have had a trick up his sleeve and this may have been it!

I intend to carry out some experiments along these lines as I really do not believe that 'free' aetheric energy is the prime mover here..

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IMO the most important clue to the nature of the TPU is the reported heat generation. It is a fairly well known fact that most battery types can be made to perform more efficiently when operating at an optimal temperature. To achieve this a process known as core preheating is used, whereby an AC pulsed current is applied to the battery for a period of time to increase its internal temperature, which in turn reduces its internal resistance and overall improves the working capacity of the battery. Most hybrid cars adopt this technique to improve battery performance, especially in cold weather conditions. I have seen the effects of this in EV race competitions where cars using 'doctored' batteries consistently outperform the rest of the field by a huge margin. This process works very well using Nicad batteries.

Its possible that SM knew this and employed a hidden Nicad battery set split into two halves whereby he used two separate say 10-20Khz heavy duty oscillators working in tandem, such that each oscillator output pulse current heated its partners battery in addition to driving the load to boost performance. This could easily generate the heat reported, especially if SM had found that high levels of core heating resulted in even higher capacity yield. The pulse frequency used is typically 0.5HZ at 50% duty. Most people studying the TPU had ruled out battery power on the basis of manufacturers capacity specification at normal working temperatures but I have always suspected that SM could have had a trick up his sleeve and this may have been it!

I intend to carry out some experiments along these lines as I really do not believe that 'free' aetheric energy is the prime mover here..

Hoppy

@Happy

I don't know that much about the subject but generally when I try to postulate a theory of TPU operation, I will always try to make the theory link with components that both link with the physical reality of the devices. I would say your theory could fit the STPU and 6TPU devices since these two units do not follow the standard SM toroid usage obviously because of the device form factor makes it ideal to think they were battery driven.

Also, just think of the illogical progression of device conceptions. 4 devices use the SM standard toroid. The first two devices are the FTPU and OTPU. Then SM miraculously comes up with the STPU and 6TPU that both deviated from the original first two designs. Now both of these were true winners since they were totally self contained, compact, see through centers and both had impressive output production that in themselves would solved a great many of the worlds energy needs.

But then, we see SM with his MTPU and LTPU devices which are much higher power output but what do we see again, the same SM standard toroid(s) sitting right there in the middle again.

Now logical design progression would indicate that when you have an advancement of one design (STPU/6TPU), you use that and then work out better designs that provide the same or improved technology but with greater output. But in this case while the greater output is true, the design seems to be in regression. He goes forward with more output power but he also steps backwards by using again the design strategy of the first two devices.

So the question is if you had the STPU and 6TPU now on hand both working without the SM standard toroids, then why the hell would you then go back to the toroid designs. Surely the STPU and 6TPU technology could have been upsized to provide both, more output power and no toroid usage. There is something very unnatural about this and because of this, we have trouble trying to make the operational link between all the TPUs.

So then the next question is "what in the Toroid makes it usable in the four TPUs", that was not required in the STPU and 6TPU. To answer this, I have to go back to the first device where SM says "there is no major circuitry in this device....". This is where we can maybe think that the four TPUs were using the Toroid to create both an action of gin and also a self-pulsing via a more passive or non-intrusive method then the pulsing used in the STPU and 6TPU. Basically he was using Toroid coil and internals to create gain and a pulse, whereas the STPU and 6TPU were using pure solid state components. If this is correct, he may have gotten away with his STPU and 6TPU devices and for sure they would produce heat enough to start melting the outer tape wrap, and, for sure those TPU were limited because the components could not handle much more throughput.

So once the STPU and 6TPU were done and SM then went on to his bigger devices, he quickly realized that the main limitation in making them with the Donut Technology was the actual lack of available components that could both handle the pulsing stresses while lasting long enough to do a demo. This for me is why he then used the Toroids again in the MTPU and LTPU. These are providing the required passive switching that sort of isolated the power production and power pulsing sections, hence this is why we see the greater amperage over the toroids. The fact that he had to use two toroids in the LTPU indicates that even the passive switching has its limitations and logical progression of design would indicate that his next TPU after the LTPU would have used three toroids and produced 1200 volts output.

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I have just early this year experimented with using VHS tape cores as inductive cores material. I was extremely disappointed to find that with 10 turns of wire through the center, I only had about 1 to 2 uH of inductance.

 This is not much more than an air core winding of ten turns. I had high hopes the tape could be recycled as a core material, but this shot down those hopes.


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@wattsup,

Can we be sure that smaller toroids were not concealed in the STPU and 6TPU and later removed because of serious heating problems within a confined space, restricted perhaps by batteries?

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The TPU powering the inverter in the U.E.C. video, weighed in at "only"  12 oz.

Have you placed anything on a scale lately to see how "heavy"  12 oz.  realy is?

I have,  it's about the weight of my office stapler,  or a ceramic mug for coffee.   I was under the impression for years that this is a very small weight, maybe not much than just wires and a capacitor or two,  but it's a lot heavier than that.

For comparison  a 9V alkaline battery is about 1.6 oz.   so if you have 10 of them then you're in the ball park.    And since I don't belive he had a number of batteries hidden in there,  then the question is what gives it the weight?    It can not be plastic rings and some wire, it has to be something heavier, or lots and lots of wire perhaps?

EM

P.S.   The center toroids seen in the 17"  TPU on the table,  are not made of plastic or anything else that is not ferromagnetic.   To be induced to belive such things is sheer foolishness IMO.   C.C
   
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Good points EmDevices about size & weights.

I watched & listened to all of SM's videos & wrote down the size & weights.

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12 Ounce Open Unit in the 38 Min Film.

OD = 6 inches.
Height = 2 inches.
Thickness = 1 inch.
Output = 186V @ 5 Amps.  7 Amps with a Heat Sink.

============================================
Small 1 Pounder, Open Coil.  Took Magnet from his pocket.

OD = 4 inches.
Height = 1 3/4 inches.
Output = 100V @ 1 Amp.  7.3 Hz & 5 KHz.
=================================
5 Inch Unit evaluated at U of C, by Dr Schinzinger
Date:  12-12-95

OD = 4 ¾”.    ID = 3 ”
Thickness = 7/8 ”
Height = 2”
Weight = He said Very Light.
Output = 137 V at 1 Amp through a 100 W Bulb.
Luminescence Meter Measured = 2.5
==================================
17 Inch Unit evaluated at U of C, by Dr Schinzinger
Date:  12-12-95

OD = 17”.    ID = 15 ”
Thickness = 1 ”
Height = 4”
Weight = He said about 6 pounds.
Output = 614 V
==================================

Small Open Coil, 1 1/2  Pounder:

OD = 6 inches.
Height = 2 inches.
Thickness = 3/4 inches.
Output = 120V @ 5 Amps.  7.3 Hz & 5 KHz.
=================================
Large 17" Open Coil TPU in video.

OD = 17 inches.
Height = 4 inches.
Thickness =
Weight = 6 Pounds.
Output = 830V @ 10 Amps.
=================================


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The bracket plate that houses the center toroids has the male side of bayonet connectors. Could it be that he simply cannibalized the backside a speaker system? Speaker magnets are heavy.
But I want everyone to look harder! The core of the bucking pair of the center toroids has the wires embedded in the edges. These cores look like they are molded so that they could be hand wound by spec. In other words the grooves would facilitate hand winding to exact specifications. They could still be ferrite and inclusive of what Wattsup said. That would make them heavy as needed to match the weights we are talking about.
Or they could be ferrite with a soft vinyl outer coating.


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This is the key in my opinion, and can be applied to all the other TPU's. This is the bifilar kick coil. But what is the kick?

Consider that the dielectric between the (zip cord) wires must decrease capacitance slightly due to the repulsion effect between the wires. This is a parametric pumping of the capacitance.

Consider also that the repulsion causes a slight opening and closing of the distance between the wires. How this interacts with ambient or artificial external magnetic fields is to be determined by experiment. Is this a magnetic gating effect?


Parametric amplifier with varying capacitance attached.  Reducing the capacitance increases the voltage.

Does reducing permeabilty increase current?
   

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According to the basic operating principle of the magnetic amplifier, reducing permeability increases power.  This reminds me of SM's comments about allowing electrons to flow easier.
   

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And this is why Bolt introduced heterodyning. The implications are inherent. It includes multiple signals, mixing strategies, standing waves, feedback and harmonics.

Parametric amplifier with varying capacitance attached.  Reducing the capacitance increases the voltage.

Does reducing permeabilty increase current?


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A Page with numerous links which may shed some light onto
the workings of the TPU.



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For what it's worth and to put this to bed, I have done countless hours of research on those white cores used in the SM TPU's.

Believe what you will, but common mode chokes are used in the audio industry in combination with dual voice coil woofers to cancel out the high frequencies common to the left and right channels.

We know that SM worked with dual voice coil woofers, as some of the SPHERIC LABS designs used a central woofer in combination with satellite speakers. The high frequency information for channels left and right are cancelled in the CMC and LF information fed to the dual voice coil woofer.

From Spheric:

Quote
As part of experiments, associated with what would become his 3D spacial control patents, he was using these delay elements with custom made bifilar wound voice coils (i.e. air coils) and unexpectedly detected an anomolous signal on his spectrum analyser.

A bifilar voice coil is a dual voice coil.


An efficient way to prevent high frequencies from being absorbed by the central woofer would be to use a common mode choke.

Attached is a paper from the audio industry showing how this is done.

We should be considering the unique properties of a common mode audio grade choke  i.e galvanic isolation and pulse mirroring.

Endless speculation will get us no where, we need to use common sense and consider the industry SM was involved in, what he might have been experimenting with, and what might have been on hand.

Additionally I have seen common mode chokes very similar to what SM used in a surplus store that I used to frequent in the 80's and 90's. It is unfortunately out of business.
« Last Edit: 2011-05-03, 14:55:11 by ION »


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It's not as complicated as it may seem...
I'm with you on your line of thinking ION, but just to play a bit of Devil's advocate, one could argue that the cross-over would take care of most of those high frequencies before they got to the woofer, then the woofer itself (considered part of the cross-over) would take care of the rest.

Perhaps though from a purist perspective, if the HF can be canceled rather than filtered, that may be a better option.

Just my 2c.

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I'm with you on your line of thinking ION, but just to play a bit of Devil's advocate, one could argue that the cross-over would take care of most of those high frequencies before they got to the woofer, then the woofer itself (considered part of the cross-over) would take care of the rest.

Perhaps though from a purist perspective, if the HF can be canceled rather than filtered, that may be a better option.

Just my 2c.

Regards,
.99

Yes, the inductance of the woofer is part of the filtering process, but a speaker is also a generator and with lower powered amps, Damping Factor comes into play which can muddy the highs.

The CMC is just a more efficient way of doing the crossover function, which would otherwise require large separate coils for each of the left and right channels. Note that the data sheet showed -3db @ 636 Hz.

Nowadays, with so much power available in amps, people don't really care and drive the voice coils directly from the amps.

It is still not a perfect solution as bi-amping would be best, eliminating any possible saturation problems.

But purists would care.
« Last Edit: 2011-05-03, 17:24:44 by ION »


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Quote from: Spherics
As part of experiments, associated with what would become his 3D spacial control patents, he was using these delay elements with custom made bifilar wound voice coils (i.e. air coils) and unexpectedly detected an anomolous signal on his spectrum analyser.

How did SM conclude that he had discovered a source of additional energy?

Spherics mentioned a couple of different methods to see what he termed and ether oscillation, but is there an easy way to show extra energy?
   

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@Ion,
Amazing...
Are you invisible guys guys looking over my shoulder?
I reread the AVEC document last night and found Spherics description and specifications for the aether return energy. Having reproduced this with Jason I know that all the devices and attempts are based upon this process. How exact do we want to get? The more exact the closer to drawing lightning to the coils as mentioned by Spherics about one of Bob Boyce's tests.
I also ran across that speaker picture and documentation also. The magnetic assembly looks akin to the description that Wattsup gave about the voice coils.
After I saw the intermittent slight ringing in the Magnacoaster setup I realized there is a better way to get this so I switched focus to the last build I have of the 3 layer rings from SM in the brown paper schematics. This description is in Grumpy's last set of posts of SM and in Spheric's AVEC documents.
This build is also a full circumerence wind whereas the ECD is a partial circumference wind. And we have all seen the eclipsing event that Jason accomplished. My ECD build was a more exacting build directly from the Ottos and Ronotte's document. I am hestiant to turn it on. But the brown paper schematic is an even more exacting specification. I was curious about the cmos buffers pointing into the coils from both sides. They are facilitating two artifacts. Because they are facing each other as the 2 frequencies are driven against each other this will cause very, very fast eclisping events as the buffers alternate between sink and source operation while conducting very small amounts of current. The voltage is also low. This is the control I was looking for. It is my belief, based on the coils pulling in lightning, that this type of coil can be a veritable bomb if indescrimitantly pulsed in the correct sequences. Like the ECD only more so. Instead of a light bulb becoming the fuse the coil becomes the fuse. And since the conductor is larger than an incandescent filament the conduction window would remain longer therefore enabling a larger event. Why is this a concern? I have no trouble blowing shit up. It is my nature.
Hope this helps.


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How did SM conclude that he had discovered a source of additional energy?

Spherics mentioned a couple of different methods to see what he termed and ether oscillation, but is there an easy way to show extra energy?

I would guess we have to get hold of some dual voice coil speakers that are bifilar wound, add some delay elements and do some careful snooping with a good spectrum analyzer.

Remember the coils in a speaker are immersed in a magnetic field. Perhaps SM also tested them independent of a mag field, as the soft iron magnetic return structure might have nullified the effect.

Possibly a weak magnetic DC bias field was necessary so small weak magnets (like those thin rectangular ones Radio Shack sold) were placed in the vicinity to help start the effect.

In my opinion, this is the area we need to pursue (as Peterae and Grumpy have). I lack a really good spectrum analyzer. Maybe I can borrow one. PC software versions probably won't do it.

Again in my opinion, the Ronnette/Otto document is inconclusive, plus we should not have to build such a complicated structure to show the "effect". A simple lab experiment following the leads given by SM and Spheric should be enough.

If anyone has conclusive evidence otherwise, let him post it in a pdf document that can be tested and replicated by others.


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@ION,
I wound a bifilar, zip cord, on a toilet paper role, and drove that with two of Jason's SSR boards. The event appeared on a 20mghz scope. Grumpy then posted 'put it on a ring' configuration. That is what I have on the bench now. I believe Groundloop is the person whom has posted this event and setup on youtube.


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I would guess we have to get hold of some dual voice coil speakers that are bifilar wound, add some delay elements and do some careful snooping with a good spectrum analyzer.

Remember the coils in a speaker are immersed in a magnetic field. Perhaps SM also tested them independent of a mag field, as the soft iron magnetic return structure might have nullified the effect.

Possibly a weak magnetic DC bias field was necessary so small weak magnets (like those thin rectangular ones Radio Shack sold) were placed in the vicinity to help start the effect.

In my opinion, this is the area we need to pursue (as Peterae and Grumpy have). I lack a really good spectrum analyzer. Maybe I can borrow one. PC software versions probably won't do it.

Again in my opinion, the Ronnette/Otto document is inconclusive, plus we should not have to build such a complicated structure to show the "effect". A simple lab experiment following the leads given by SM and Spheric should be enough.

If anyone has conclusive evidence otherwise, let him post it in a pdf document that can be tested and replicated by others.

JDO300, myself, and others have experimented with pulsed electric field and permanent magnets.  From the violent magnet movement, and strong pumping of the magnetic field that results, I expect that SM encountered some serious thumping in his speakers.  I don't mean a typical bass thump, I mean more like a tear the cone thump.  "Holy Crap!" thumping.

Peter, if you read this, wrap a bifilar coil for a speaker and apply your delayed pulses.  Bada-BOOM!
Now, spectrum analyzer or not, when I apply a small audio signal to my speaker and I get KA-BOOM out of it, I am inclined to think that something anomalous has occured, and ask myself: "Where did all of that energy come from?".

   
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