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Author Topic: Tariel kapanadze's Energy Generator  (Read 293781 times)
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Don,

   Thanks for the info. Tesla's explanation is interesting because the setup is identical to a Lecher arrangement (what people call stout copper wire). In this setup you are creating a standing wave in the wire. It's my understanding that the displacement currents generated will only power resistive loads. To power a motor off this setup would be an incredible feet. I have yet to see anyone be able to do this.

Respectfully,

Core
   
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The following is a very long story so I will break it up into 'two' parts. It is a true story it took almost a year for me to hear the second half but I witnessed the first half. Some of you may think it's off topic but it may have some important clues as to what we are all looking for. It may also clue us in on how Tesla’s Magnifying transmitter worked.

Here is Part 1. Please keep in mind everything I say here is 100% true and happened.



May 2010,

  About that time last year in my neck of the woods we had a terrific spring storm blow through. The kinda storm guy’s like and women hate. Strong lightning, thunder and the occasional category 4 wind gust. This storm hit us pretty early evening around 7:00 or so. I figured because of the wind we where going to lose power and sure enough by 8:30 pm a large tree on a wooded lot came down and took down a high tension wire.

  The distance from my house to the down wire is about 175 ‘. My neighbors house, behind me, is about 100’ from the downed power line. From the ramblings I got from the local fire department it was estimated that this line connected NY and NJ and was carrying about 70,000 volts or so. That figure was estimated by local authorities at the time. The wire itself looked to me as triple zero wire (000) AWG.  I did not see the line go down  but I heard it the minute smacked the blacktop. I am sure by now everybody is familiar with of the sound of a 10,000 volt oil burner transformer. Figure that sound times one million and a spark so large it turned night into day. From my deck I had a clear view of the explosions at the time I recall saying to myself ‘This is what Tesla must have been hearing and seeing with some of his experiments’. I have to say it was very intimidating even from my point of view.

  I was intrigued so I grabbed my very dark sunglasses to take a better look at the spark. The entire area lost power and the only light was coming from the power line sparks. With my glasses I could see that the line would hit the ground first, then after a few tenths of a second would be jolted into the air about four feet or so. At times when it hit the ground it would not spark immediately it would just sit there and growl for lack of a better term. Then out of nowhere it would fire off with incredible force. When it did fire off a white hot flame would shoot out from the point of contact. This went on for hours due to the confusion between the NY and NJ utility companies as to who had jurisdiction.

  I made my way over to my neighbors house, who was only 100’ away from the line, and invited them over to my house where it was safer. The sparks emitted from the line where landing on his lawn so we moved his kids and wife, who where terrified, and asked them to stay with my kids. I stayed behind because my neighbor said he smelt something burning in his house.

  Finally at 3:00 am the power was shut off to the line. The whole time I was with my neighbor trying to find what was burning. We found nothing at the time but when I went to there finished basement I could see a hazy smoke with my flash light. The smoke appeared to be thicker in his boiler room but still I could not find the source. It was now 4:00 am and I started to think the smoke was from the melted blacktop. As I made my way back to my house I recall noticing that the smell was not outdoors and only emanated from his house. Neither him nor I ever spoke about the odd smell again …..................….until yesterday.

End of Part 1


Respectfully,

Core
   
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Was he getting a ground current through his basement?
That was the original problem with ( one wire ) utility power before they switched to a ballanced two wire system
   
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Darkspeed,
     actually it's the opposite. Tesla first started with the poliphase AC induction generator system by "reversing" the field. He did this even before getting to the US, while he was in Paris working for a Marconi DC subsidiary. He assembled and put together in his spare time the generator and the motor to demonstrate it. Later, after he moved to the US and won the Chicago fair power and lighting band winning effectively the "war of the currents" against Marconi, he had already moved on to a single wire and wireless system. The Niagra Falls plant was just his first step in harnessing "Nature's wheelwork".
Everything pretty much after 1893 and after Colorado Springs was towards a wireless power transmission system for his ultimate goal. The plant in Colorado Springs was the base of his Wardenclyffe project as he had discovered the possibility of effectively using standing waves and so the possibility of his wireless system to work. With every means, he was researching (pseudo)electrostatic phenomena and was no longer interested in "simple" AC which he merely used in his alternators as base for HV generation for his magnifying coils. Following this line of research he made some other very important discoveries which he just briefly spoke about in his latter interviews, such as the origin of Cosmic Rays and their harnessing and the fact that there is not energy in matter other than what it receives from the environment.
   
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iceweller .. i agree with what you said but i think you misunderstood what i said.

one wire utility - was in referrence to the Edison one wire dc unbalanced utility system - not the Tesla one wire transmission system or the Tesla poly phase transmission system.

Thanks,
   
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Darkspeed,

     right, sorry for the confusion, I agree regarding Edison's DC system.

   Additionally, regarding the AC distribution system, the Neutral return wire is actually bound to ground at transformer stations. Also in some countries they use ground simply as the return (I believe in the Philippines for ex.) though I don't know if this has been removed for obvious reasons (it was like this over a decade ago or more if I recall correctly).
   
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  The following day he smell’s the odd odor in his house. He checks downstairs and a gray mist of smoke is evident. He walks into the un-finished part of his basement were the boiler, washing machine and general storage area is. Here he can see that the light gray smoke is coming from the materials on an old steel shelf. This shelf is made out of thick steel and is well rusted from being in the un-finished area where the humidity in the summer is high. On the bottom shelf are cardboard box that have vinyl records in them.

   Most of the records are missing there covers and are just stacked on top of themselves. The cardboard boxes are slightly ‘moist’ due the humidity in the area. These boxes will not ignite but will smolder if you put a flame to them. The moisture prevents full ignition kinda like trying to get damp wood to ignite.

  The metal shelf is standing directly on the concrete. Along side the shelf is the heating line that runs from ceiling to floor. This copper line is about 3” away from the metal shelf. The center of the pipe has a ‘bow’ in it and rides about ½” from the shelf. This copper pipe then goes into the concrete and feeds the hot water loop in the finished basement.

  The vinyl records were ‘warped’ as if they where melted. Some records are fused together from what I assume was heat. There where other toy plastic figures that also looked like they were exposed to a heat source. It appeared to be enough to disfigure them but not fully ignite them. The corners and ends of the cardboard boxes were black as if they where torched with a flame.

  At the time of the storm I was in that area of the basement trying to track down the source. I did not see any flames or sparks at the time. Not one piece of electronic equipment was damaged. All the equipment and appliances are well grounded to the electrical panel and then to earth. The only damage was the items on the metal shelf that stood on the concrete. I found this odd, the shelf itself is not directly grounded there is about 5 inches of concrete it sits on.

  Maybe this is something everyone else see’s all the time. I have never seen this before or have heard of something like this happening before. From this I could see that the only way to recover the current from the earth is to have some type of insulator or dielectric material between the earth and a conductor.  This conductor would then start to vibrate and anything attached to it would be vibrated also. In this case the records and cardboard boxes vibrated near there ignition point.

  One interesting point, there are other boxes on the floor. These boxes where not affected at all. Only the items on the metal shelf were affected. Has anyone seen something like this before? I can’t see this being anymore then a high power sharp impulse directly to earth. A useable reflection can only be picked up by having an insulator or dielectric in-between earth and a heavy mass, in this case a heavy metal shelf. This mass will then vibrate and these vibrations can be used to excite other items.

  Sorry for the long post, if the moderators believe that there is no benefit to this story please feel free to delete it.

Respectfully,

Core   
   
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Core,
   this "phenomenon" has appeared very often in a small town in south of Italy called "Caronia" near a military base. They had to eventually evacuate the town because metallic or conductive items were catching fire because they became red hot during day and night unexpectedly. Iron springs in materasses, unplugged appliances would burst into flames after starting to smoke even without power in the whole neighbourhood. Unconnected electrical cables laying on the floor would melt but just one foot away nothing would happen. This went on for a few years though lately everything is quiet. This did not happen during storms, just ordinary days or nights. They thought the nearby railway could have been a cause, but they shut it off and it still happened. The footages shown were incredible, red hot iron and insulation from unconnected wires melting before peoples' eyes, yet they were able to film it without problems to the people or camera's electronics just a few feet away. Someone's parked car's tire exploded and caught fire but the rest of the car was unharmed. The disc and ring became red hot. 2 people lost their car totally as it stopped while they were passing by and started smoking then caught fire. They interviewed a couple of men that mentioned seeing "white globes" going underwater (the town is near the shore) maybe globular lightning phenomena or something else. It is all documented, if you search and look at the couple of footages taken by a crew and someone's phone it's impressive. The firemen were astonished and baffled. They investigated for a long time until the military arrived and they said not to worry as it would not happen again. A military officer unofficially said he could not go into the details of the phenomenon - end of story.
The official report was "free flames", whatever that means.

http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canneto_(Caronia)

   
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Core,
   this "phenomenon" has appeared very often in a small town in south of Italy called "Caronia" near a military base. They had to eventually evacuate the town because metallic or conductive items were catching fire because they became red hot during day and night unexpectedly. Iron springs in materasses, unplugged appliances would burst into flames after starting to smoke even without power in the whole neighbourhood. Unconnected electrical cables laying on the floor would melt but just one foot away nothing would happen. This went on for a few years though lately everything is quiet. This did not happen during storms, just ordinary days or nights. They thought the nearby railway could have been a cause, but they shut it off and it still happened. The footages shown were incredible, red hot iron and insulation from unconnected wires melting before peoples' eyes, yet they were able to film it without problems to the people or camera's electronics just a few feet away. Someone's parked car's tire exploded and caught fire but the rest of the car was unharmed. The disc and ring became red hot. 2 people lost their car totally as it stopped while they were passing by and started smoking then caught fire. They interviewed a couple of men that mentioned seeing "white globes" going underwater (the town is near the shore) maybe globular lightning phenomena or something else. It is all documented, if you search and look at the couple of footages taken by a crew and someone's phone it's impressive. The firemen were astonished and baffled. They investigated for a long time until the military arrived and they said not to worry as it would not happen again. A military officer unofficially said he could not go into the details of the phenomenon - end of story.
The official report was "free flames", whatever that means.

http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canneto_(Caronia)



WOW great story. Hold on a minute There is a link between TK, this shore town and my neighbors house. If you recall TK uses a water pipe in all his video's as a ground. The radiator that they buried did not work and you can see them add water to increase is conductivity I guess.

The water pipe that they use runs for miles so it would be close to impossible to calculate the ground rods like Tesla did his Magnifying transmitter in Long Island. If you recall the latest video of TK is the 10Kw unit. This is filmed on an island and they are very close to the water so the water table where the unit is must be high.

Now in my case. I live within walking distance to a large lake, about 9 miles long and about 2 miles at the widest point. Even in the driest of summers here I just have to dig 18" and I can hit water. My water table here is VERY high in a normal summer 4" and you got water. I get a lot of mountain run off that feeds the lake.

So could this just me a coincidence? Could it be possible that the energy of a 'impulse' going into the Earth energizes the water then the reflection of the impulse adds additional energy to the water? Would this be like charging a capacitor in a camera? With each pulse the charge accumulates?

Thanks for that info Ice. Also sounds like the military was up to something. On my end we are heading into Spring. I would like to try to screw around with this to see what happens during a thunder storm.

Respectfully,

Core 
   
Group: Guest
 Here in this story a Tesla device is blamed.

Quote
Authorities seemed to agree that some sort of electrical anomaly was responsible, and many experts traveled to Caronia to investigate. A few people have blamed volcanic oddities, others speculate that someone was intentionally creating an electrical phenomenon for nefarious ends, possibly including a con on the villagers, with a Tesla-type Magnifying Transmitter or similar device. (Although this raises the question of why the villagers have not heard the thunderous noise produced by it, unless it is very well hidden indeed, and the fact that no attempt at extortion has yet been reported seems odd.) Many aspects of the case were typical of poltergeist phenomena

The phenomenon abated, but began again in April 2004. By August, it appeared to be gone for good. The cause remains unknown, but some electrical improvements were apparently made to the village's power system.

A subsequent investigation led the then head of Sicily's Civil Protection Agency, Tullio Martella, to offer: "The cause of the fires seems to have been static electric charges. What we don't understand is why there were these static electric charges." The report went on to suggest that the fires could have been caused by "high power electro magnetic emissions which were not man made and reached a power of between 12 and 15 gigawatts".

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caronia

As I have seen with my own eyes, a huge pulse into the earth can create havoc.

Respectfully,

Core
   
Group: Guest
Core,
   there is a lot of speculation on what went on there. I must tell you those people were completely freaked out by this. They are regular people in a small (less than 200) population town. I saw first hand their faces and one of my friends who lives in the south said that lots of people left the town after they associated the light globes going into the sea with these phenomena, they started thinking the town was "doomed" as they are sensitive to this stuff (a lot of talk about esoteric baloney too). What he told me was that there is a miltary base nearby which apparently has an underwater entrance or channel. I don't know if this is true, but the people there often said there was military activity when this happened. I don't buy the "not man made" phenomena, someone was surely up to something, possibly not even in that area. I don't remember who mentioned Tesla's magnifying TX experiments but he said this could have been a side effect or a "node" so that the whole area was a hot spot. The source may very well have been outside the country.
   
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There was some talk that Tariel was able to create the effect without using a ground wire. In his latest video the 10kw unit he is using a ground wire. If he new how to create the device without a ground why would he lug grounding rods to the island and spend the time pounding them in? I think that info regarding not using ground is false. What do you think?

Respectfully,

Core

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B05o3Uf5jmQ[/youtube]
   
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I think that it depends on how you configure the output phases but let me expand further. The Green Box and "Blue" Box are single phase devices (generating modulated output HF signal "trains" @ 50Hz for obvious reasons) so you *need* a ground or return reference. This is important for safety as you cannot have dangerous "floating" voltage levels. For ex. in my power transmission example using 2 TCs, the secondaries need a reference to tie one end to ground - though their "grounds" can be interconnected at a distance (just like Tesla said, the earth behaves as a conductor, no EM propagation or induction into the second RX coil, no corona leakage, just "charges"). Notice that there are some ferrites at the top of the TX coil which increase the output power by a good 25% without apparently increasing the input current:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rjb7PsJcWpw

If we examine the 3 phase 100KW setup, the return line is the common return path, and I'm sure it's reference is also connected to ground. It's a large reference "tank". If you don't "grip" onto this reference well enough, you will be "lifting" it and the output power will drastically decrease because you don't have something steady to "pump" the charges against, hence the thick ground wire well connected to a good ground. Maybe Tariel says a ground is not (necessarily) needed for the device to work because for ex. get a 2 phase device, connect their "common" reference and get their outputs in opposing phase, then you have two potential references without needing ground, though this is dangerous as they are floating and you know what this means for everyday appliances.

   If you take the Tesla wireless power transfer example, imagine this happening in one coil setup (I am aware of the resonance problem this would create, but let's say it is resolved). You still need ground as reference for the output. Most important is the understanding of the TC operation and output current and the field it creates which in my opinion reveals a lot on the operation of TK's devices. All this relates to Tesla's description of the "sink" effect, or creating a high energy area and a lower one to let the environment do the rest (see Linde's air liquefier and similar systems), but while doing this we convert one form of energy into another, which is more efficient, thus the balance is positive and we can extract what we need until we kill the "sink" effect. The TC coil creates a strong field but not electromagetic. Anything in this field is a potential receiver and if it is tuned correctly we can reconvert these "rapidly varying electrostatic charges" into electromagnetic as is shown in the experiment, and power a load. The balance here is not yet leveraging the efficient energy conversion mechanism as there is one thing yet misunderstood, a key.

  Of course, all this is based on my understanding of the device.
   
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Never mind... I got my answer.

DonL
« Last Edit: 2011-03-08, 04:20:25 by dllabarre »
   
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Well fellows
I know there are a lot of Raw nerves around about this Gentleman!
The Buzz Quote:
People have to learn the process step by step and the first step is the molecular polarization process just as Meyer stated.
------------------------------
After posting the Above last night
The thread was locked.
http://www.overunity.com/index.php?topic=6340.msg276989#new



A pm to me follows.................[several Relevant but nasty comments were for mature audiances only, omitted]

Quote:
Too funny. I read your comments at OUR today and see you have been reposting my posts there. I about fell out of my chair laughing about the OU van gogh comment.

Nope, I don't have syphilis, I am over 50 years old and not a bit over weight. I drink 3 pots of coffe a day, smoke a pack a day and my hands were probably swollen from winding copper tubing. I just figured out they make thin walled tubing which is easier to bend. You find that in a different part of home depot - over by the brass fittings. It's called an icemaker install kit. 20 feet - 20 buck and comes with a few fittings.

The moment I started posting the gas and how to make it used in the tubing, Pirate  banned me and deleted the posts. Even when I tried under a different username to post the info., it was deleted.


The methods and ways to build this device are ENDLESS!

Lee deforest invented the vacuum tube. He placed hydrogen in the tube and it self ran and self destroyed. Decades later they invented the pentode tube. Again the tube would self oscillate and self destruct. So they de-tuned it.

It is sometimes called multipacitor effect.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multipactor_effect

Utkin describes it well in his documents but leaves out the gas portion. The reverse wind mimics the two waves that make a particle which I have written about somewhere

The gas is simple to make and I suspect there are several that will work. Exothenilist (mis-spelled) made a post in 2008 where his girlfriend translated a video of kapanadze. Kapanadze talked about how it made everything around the device give off electricity, that is true.

For example - If I connect a neon to a earth ground and touch the other end to the coil, it will not light. BUT, if my wife holds one wire and I hold the other wire, it lights to full bright 4 feet away. If we hold hands with our other free hands, the light is cut in half.

I could explain all kinds of weird things about this thing that make no sense at all until you realize it is an energy sump just like Tesla stated. No meter could measure it but I found a way to make a meter to measure it using a cheap analog and some parts.

You saw how in the green box video when they tried to measure from the light bulb the meter just bounced around? Yep - same thing. Nothing electronic is going to run near that coil. If he did get an amp reading off the ground plane in that video, I would be amazed. No wonder that is the biggest wire in the system X10. So you are basically unable to use scopes and meters when working with it. Did you ever see a scope or meter in a lkapanadze video? Nope - useless.

Eric Dollard stated it is "dielectric electricity". That is not true but you can not use it without a dielectric between you and the coil from what I have figured out so far. It is by far, the strangest thing I have ever played with.

I suspect there is another step to convert it into a current source. I have not figured that out yet. Absolutely nothing about this electric field makes sense. I suspect when I get the correct gas made, it will be a better current source.

I have proven that different gases at different pressures changes everything about how it works.

The buzz bomb was so far the single best disclosure regarding this device.

The large copper coil on the end is just a kicker used to start it and is unimportant. The inverter box that kapanadze plugged into it to start it drove that and charged a cap inside the green box.  pirate claims it is a heater coil. Ha!

Feel free to post that at OUR  since I know you probably would anyway. My best to Grump - I miss ya man.  

Busy experimenting with this super strange field for now. I'll be bach.
 


People have to learn the process step by step
---------------------------
PS I'm quite sure "theBuzz" has been deleted at OU
so no more PM's To me!
Chetkremens@gmail.com


   

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tExB=qr
If he misses me so much, why did he get me banned several times?

Funny thing is that we have been saying similar operating principles.

I disagree that is can not be measured.
   
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The voltage could not be measured because the output was not a clean sinus output at 50Hz - this has been said and said again. I cannot measure the output of my second coil because it's resonating at 180KHz but I can power a resistive load fine as you can see. You would need to rectify the output with schottky diodes then measure it in DC to avoid measuring mistakes.

The clamp ammeter works (though not stable) in the video because the HF output is pulsed at 50 Hz so the ammeter acts as a low pass filter ignoring the HF, nothing mysterious about it. This is also why he could place a step down transformer, with the relevant filters (in the box) to get 12V, rectify them and close the loop.

The conversion system is a HF system (not VHF nor UHF, just HF) working in the KHz range. This is why there is an inverter and why it is fed by DC and why the GB input is AC, because that's where he started.
   
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This explains why he hasn't responded to my PMs
I thought he was just changed to read-only and not banned.

Now I'm starting to believe he was banned because of the information he posted as opposed to his behavior.

I found many, many videos and schematic links removed in energeticforum and youtube when I was searching over the weekend.

Even old Stan Meyers videos being deleted.

DonL


   

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tExB=qr
How does a Tesla Reciever convert it to usable current?

   
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http://www.scribd.com/doc/39121161/Secondary-Electron-Emission-by-Bruce-Darrow-Gaither

Go to link, click Print icon, then Download and Print

Quote
In this era of energy shortages we have all daydreamed about owning a device which would take the energy that we have and multiply it. Imagine how happy we would be if you could simply plug in a device which would double your electricity. Numerous researchers, writers and inventors have sought to do just that.

But scientists have cautioned that the law of conservation of energy dictates that energy is never created nor destroyed, only converted from one form to another. None of these schemes, they say, would ever work. They are just perpetual motion machines.

The purpose of this book is to discuss advances in electronics and materials science which have made things possible which were not contemplated when the laws of Thermodynamics were postulated decades ago.

Secondary electron emission is a well-known process. It is that effect which causes additional electrons to be emitted when a substance is bombarded by a stream of electrons. This secondary emission effect was discovered a century ago, and it has found application in a variety of devices which are in use today.

Advances in electronics and the development of new materials have revealed new methods and substances which make this secondary electron emission even more effective. In fact, today the impossible is possible—one electron at a time.

If a beam of electrons is aimed at a target electrode coated with a given substance then electrons are emitted from that target. The number of electrons emitted from the target which has been bombarded is compared to the number of primary electrons in the original electron beam. The electrons emitted after bombardment by primary electrons are called secondary electrons.

The material’s propensity to emit electrons after bombardment is called the “secondary electron emission coefficient”. That is expressed as the number of secondary electrons divided by the number of primary electrons.

A secondary electron coefficient of less than 1 means that the substance does not emit as many electrons as it is bombarded with. A coefficient of greater than 1.0 means that the substance emits more secondary electrons than bombarded it

We are interested in this book in those materials which exhibit a high coefficient of secondary electron emission. The goal is to perfect a device which will emit more electrons than you started out with. Some devices have been invented to minimize or eliminate secondary electron emission, but those are not within the scope of this book.

Years of testing and research have resulted in well-known coefficients of secondary electron emission for scores of materials. Research first focused upon basic substances such as copper, steel, silver, gold and other metals. Then more exotic combinations and alloys were tested, such as oxides and alkalai metal combinations. Some metals and some combination coatings worked much better than others.

In recent years miniaturization and nanotechnology as well as chemical vapor deposition of thin films have come up with even more effective secondary electron multipliers.

In fact today’s plasma televisions and LED lights are examples of such substances and processes.

A reference to various charts is now possible to determine at a glance exactly what the secondary electron emission coefficient is for these materials.

But the devil is still in the details.

Two variables are of importance as to the materials. One variable is the angle at which the primary electrons impact the target. In general it has been found that a better result is obtained when the primary electrons graze the target material at an angle rather than hitting straight-on. But the physics of the secondary emission process and the atomic and molecular structure of the target materials mean that the optimum angle is different for different materials. The second main variable is the voltage of the beam of primary electrons. Some substances max out their secondary emission coefficient at very low
voltages and some materials reach their highest secondary emission only at much higher voltages. This is believed to be due to the depth to which the primary electrons impinges the material and the amount of tunneling into the substance.

Therefore care must be be paid to the research of the variables in the individual research papers and patents and there is no magical formula which will work for all materials. The configuration of the device used in the secondary emission process will need to vary to meet the characteristics of the target material.

Once the primary electrons have impacted the target material and secondary electrons are released, then the secondary electrons do not form a focused beam. Instead they tend to just sit there in a cloud of electrons. Meanwhile the primary electrons will usually bounce off the target at an angle equal to the angle with which they make incidence to the target. This means that the kinetic energy of the primary electrons is greater than that of the secondary electrons after impact. In other words the secondary electrons are indeed a larger number of electrons—but they are of low voltage.

However numerous methods exist to increase the voltage or kinetic energy of the secondary electrons.

One process which is common in devices which employ secondary electron emission is that of multiple impacts upon this emissive target material. The great inventor, Philo Farnsworth, was the first to devise methods to facilitate these multiple impacts upon emissive materials. He called his devices “multipactors” because of the multiple impacts they made with secondary electron emissive material. Thus, if a target electrode had a
secondary electron emission coefficient of 2 then the number of primary electrons would double when they hit the target electrode. If there were two successive impacts then the primary electrons would double, and then that total would double again—or be four times the original primary electrons put into the device.

If the primary electrons were somehow sent through a series of 8 target electrodes then the multiplication factor would become astronomical, and each of the impacts would result in an exponential increase of electrons based upon the coefficient of secondary electron emission from that material.

So various devices were designed and perfected to make the primary electrons impact numerous electrodes one after another. One branch of these devices is employed by photomultiplier tubes. Many of these devices are capable of multiplying the primary electrons one hundred million times. Thus minute electric currents can be sensed and multiplied so that they can register on scientific equipment. But numerous other configurations and devices are in use today.

One method is to bounce the electrons off of two opposing electrodes over and over again, like a game of ping pong. Another configuration would be to have the electrons strike electrodes arranged inside a circular tube so that they impact coated electrodes over and over again. A third method is that of forming a cascade of specially-coated electrodes and having the primary electrons bounce off off each successive electrode until they all come
out the end.

Another genre of devices are called “channel” devices. In these designs the primary electrons are sent down a waveguide or tunnel of some sort and the entire length of the device is coated with the emissive materials. The electrons keep bouncing off the walls of these guides until they reach the end and the repeated impacts result in a high multiplication of the primary electrons.

One of the axioms of electricity is that current will not conduct very well when exposed to the atmosphere because the gas acts as an insulator. Therefore most secondary electron emission devices were made in the form of vacuum tubes. The electricity goes through the vacuum without loss and then the impacts upon emissive material have the desired result.

However secondary emission and multipactors have been made into semiconductors and chips. These use the process of “avalanche” multiplication in many instances, where the electrons hit the emissive substance and are then multiplied and pass through a solid state stack of materials. Sometimes the semiconductors include a tiny vacuum space and they act in the same way as a vacuum tube.

However there is a snag or two for the use of secondary emission in chips. The first problem is “space charge”. That is the effect of completely filling up a given space with electrons. One you saturate the evacuated space with space charge then an equilibrium state is achieved and the primary electrons will no longer multiply as desired. As you might guess, the greater the area the more electrons will fit into the space before the space charge saturates the area. The space charge, then, has been found to diminish as to the 4/3 power of the area of the evacuated space. This means that, for instance, if you triple the size of vacuum space then that would result in 3x 4/3 power= 12/3 power (or the 4th power). Then a tripling of space would end up in shrinking the space charge by the 4th power. The bottom line is that bigger is better.

The second drawback to micro multipactors is that the vacuums must be higher than in vacuum tubes, and this is hard to achieve. Also many devices use sharp points as electrodes because more electrodes will emit from sharp points than from blunt shapes. In the micro world though the sharpness of the sharp point has to be correspondingly sharper. The finer the point on the electrode the harder it is to fabricate and fit into the layered semiconductor devices.

What this book hopes to achieve is not the simple multiplication of electrons to provide light or brightness but to generate electricity on a larger scale. The aim is not to build a generator station for thousands of people but to scale the multipactor devices to work with individual appliances and vehicles. Thus the size and rated capacities of the components in the proposed multipactors must be designed to be in the range of home current up to the amount of voltage and current required to power an electric car.

At this point the discussion of secondary electron emission must include some of the math and physics. Don’t let your eyes glaze over. Everybody knows a little bit about electricity—and it is pretty simple. But there is a hazy horizon on the amount of knowledge of the basics of electricity. The terms are VOLTAGE, AMPERAGE and
POWER. The easy rule of thumb is that VOLTAGE x AMPS = POWER.

You need to throw in the RESISTANCE into this formula—but for now we will stick with VOLTSxAMPS=POWER.

OK—so we will calculate one AMP. An Ampere involves the amount of “charge”, which is calculated in terms of a COULOMB. A Coulomb is -6.24151 × 1018 electrons. So the process of secondary electron emission results in a lot of electrons. The secondary electrons are not moving very much after they are multiplied. So they have low voltage—but they DO have AMPERAGE because of the presence of lots of electrons.

The purpose of this analysis is to point out that we have low volts and high amps from secondary emission. When you remember volts x amps = power then you can see that we have to have just a high enough voltage to meet the requirements of modern electrical devices.

There are numerous well-known devices which can act as VOLTAGE MULTIPLIERS. These devices will increase the voltage, but only at the expense of a proportional decrease in the amperage.

The end product of these multipactors can be made usable, therefore, by running these high amperage currents through a voltage multiplier. You just fine-tune the voltage multiplier to give the right mix of volts and amps.

In short, secondary electron emission creates NEW electrons. We put the new electrons to use by stepping up the voltage to required levels.

In this way the laws of conservation of energy are negotiated. The multipactor creates new electrons and THEN the energy is converted from one form into another. But there is indeed a creation of new electrons in multipactors.

I will leave it to the scientists and inventors in their respective papers and patents to describe the manner in which the secondary electrons are created and how the multipactor devices are designed.

The point of my analysis is simply that the multipactors will create new electrons and the new electrons can be made usable through voltage multipliers.

One of these voltage multipliers is a Cockroft-Walton circuit. Modern electronics has manufactured numerous cheap transistor devices that you could get at Radio Shack or electric supply houses. A Cockroft-Walton circuit is simply a ladder of diodes and capacitors (pennies apiece) which double the voltage at each step of the ladder. So a multi-step ladder creates a multiple doubling of the original voltage. Some of the older designs apply a step-up transformer to do the same thing.

So we see that there is a problem with voltage in secondary electron emission. The inventors have figured out a method to use voltage to their advantage in the multipactor devices. They apply the rule that opposite charges attract. This accelerates the cloud of secondary electrons so that they will impact the next target with it’s emissive coating. The electron is a negative charge. So the inventors manipulate the sluggish cloud of negative charge by providing a positive electrode to put it into motion.

Some designs will make the next electrode one with a positive charge, so when the primary electrons strike the first target and are multiplied then the cloud of secondary electrons is accelerated right up to the second electrode coated with emissive materials. hen they make a long chain or cascade of these target electrodes then they give each of them a successively higher positive charge so that the ever-increasing cloud of secondary electrons is accelerated one step at a time in the desired direction.

Other designs use an electrode which is positioned between the first impact target and the second and they give that intermediate electrode a positive charge to accelerate the cloud of secondary electrons in the desired direction. This intermediate electrode might be in the form of a screen or grid or a tube. The positive charge, in every instance, attracts the opposite charge on the electrons and they are suddenly accelerated through the holes in these intermediate electrodes and then the electrons continue with their increased voltage until they impact the coated electrode. This step may be repeated again and again.

The positive charge on these attracting electrodes is often provided by using Cockroft-Walton circuits. So either a single or a multi-step CW circuit may be used to multiply an initial small current to give a charge bias of increasing strength to a series of attracting electrodes. Oftentimes the CW circuit contains “taps” which tap the current at a certain step in that multiplying step ladder. The step would then have one voltage level to apply to the attracting electrode, and then the next step would have a higher voltage which could be tapped at that level and applied to the next attracting electrode, and so on.

Going back the purpose of this analysis again: we are trying to get as many electrons as possible out of the multipactor. So the gameplan is to select the coating material for electrodes which has the highest secondary electron emission coefficient. Then the voltage at which the primary electrons must be accelerated to achieve the optimal secondary emission must be applied. The spatial requirements are important too because we want the right angle and the right depth for the impact zone. So we get the highest electron multiplication at each step. Then we take that level of electron multiplication and exponentially multiply it by the number of impacts in the multipactor device.

Some devices, as aforestated, simply bounce the electrons back and forth between two opposed electrodes. In these designs the electrons are moving at the speed of light, so they hit the opposite electrode in a known length of time. Then they bounce back to the original electrode. The desired effect is to have but one cloud of secondary electrons bouncing back and forth, and not a lot of different clouds. Therefore the two electrodes are given opposite charges, positive and negative, and these charges are sequentially reversed so that the electron cloud always moves away from the first electrode after they have been multiplied and then toward the target electrode for more multiplication. Since we know the distance between the two electrodes and because the speed of light is known, then we can determine the FREQUENCY at which the electric charge is reversed on these electrodes. So, take the speed of light and divide it by the distance between the electrodes. Say, 186,000 miles per second divided by 6 inches.

The resulting frequency is in the range of billions of cycles per second. There are modern oscillator chips which cost pennies which can do that.

The point here is that we take the secondary electron coefficient, and let’s say that this is 2 for the sake of argument. Then we apply the frequency of the impacts on these emissive electrodes—and that is perhaps one billion times per second. In this example we would then obtain 2 to the one billionth power!

Are you beginning to get the picture?

If we make the device the right size so that the space charge does not saturate the vacuum then we can generate sufficient electrons so that we can step up the voltage and step down the amperes to achieve the desired power characteristics for our electric appliance or motor.

For the purposes of our last example we have a secondary emission coefficient of 2, or a doubling of the primary electrons at each impact with the electrode with the emissive coating. But what if the secondary emission coefficient were 10…or 100…or even 1000? Just apply the math and you can see the possibilities of these multipactors.

Attached to this anthology is one of the latest research papers from Korea where scientists have obtained a new record for the secondary emission coefficient: 22,000!

Thus reason dictates that the proper coating must be selected for the electrodes. Then the rest of the components must be selected and positioned so that the size, frequency and angle of impact are optimal.

I think I heard somebody say, “Hey, Einstein—it still has to be hooked up to electricity to start up and to power the attracting electrodes. What about that?”

The answer lies in the principle of feedback and self-oscillation. We know that many oscillators are known to exhibit the characteristic of self-oscillation. Once you get them going then they tend to keep on oscillating on their own. This process works in multipactor-oscillators. It just takes a little electricity to get them started and then the
internal processes take over and they self-oscillate, producing electrons without the input of outside electricity.

Many electronic devices apply the principle of feedback, especially in audio devices. We can remember Jimi Hendrix hitting a note on his guitar and then holding the guitar in front of his amplifier. The amp’s sound creates a feedback loop with the guitar and a sound is created which is self-sustaining without the additional input of playing another note. Numerous transistors work with feedback loops to take the electrical output of the device and split that output and send part of it back to the original input where it is again amplified. So the coupling of the output to the input wires is what is required. So using either feedback or self-oscillation or both a multipactor device can be fabricated so that it will have self-sustaining output of electrons.

That still leaves us the positive bias charge that is placed upon the attracting electrodes to accelerate those sluggish clouds of secondary electrons.

Again, we simply split the output signal and loop part of it back to the accelerating electrodes, and this is the positive charge remember. So the negative charge goes back to feedback the input and the other loop goes to the voltage multiplier. A Cockroft-Walton multiplier can be either positive or negative in charge—you simply reverse the connection between the diodes and capacitors and it multiplies the positive charge.

Therefore, we could use batteries to start up the multipactor and then apply common electronics components and devices to split the output and loop it back to the input and bias the positive electrodes. Then the battery can be shut off, and even recharged while the multipactor runs on self-sustaining current.

That guy who used Einstein’s name like a dirty word again wants to voice his opinion, “Hey, genius, this stuff is a bunch of hooey! How do we know this would work?”

How do we know?
Because of TELEVISION.
These multipactor devices were invented by Philo Farnsworth when he invented television. Just one glance at this super-egghead fellow should give you the answer. This guy was a super-brain and he just NEEDED to have special vacuum tubes to strengthen the broadcast signal of television from remote locations to make the picture tubes bright enough to see—so he simply invented multipactors to multiply that weak input signal.

If these multipactors work then why didn’t Farnsworth take over the whole world?
The reason is related to the laws of business and not the laws of physics. Philo Farnsworth saw the value of television and his multipactors but he had an independent streak which caused him to form his own Farnsworth Television company with which he intended to put RCA and GE out of business. Instead they put Farnsworth out of business by using monopoly tactics. But Philo Farnsworth applied his principles based upon secondary electron emission to the point that he invented a nuclear fusion reactor before he was through.

The heyday of vacuum tubes was filled with imitators of every sort. There is even an International Patent classification which contains only “Farnsworth Tubes”.

Since Farnsworth’s day the vacuum tube was supplanted by the Japanese transistor and then the Silicon Valley semiconductor chip. Nobody makes vacuum tubes anymore and the vacuum tube multipactor concepts have been lost in the world of microelectronics.
But even today secondary electron emission is applied in the plasma television sets where scores of little holes and dots are brightened by electron multiplication. Other areas such as scintillation counters and electron detectors and night vision goggles use the process, often in the solid-state configuration. There exists an offshoot applying vacuum tubes— the sector called PHOTONICS which use vacuum tubes to multiply light into electronic signals.

As stated above, there are several basic methods of achieving multiple impacts of electrons.

These graphs and excerpts were developed over a period of time. The more ancient the research the lower the coefficients. As newer and newer materials were invented and tested there is a general trend toward higher and higher coefficients. I would respectfully call your attention to the source material in the following sections for detailed analyis of the methodology and results of individual studies and devices with various emissive materials.

Attention should be paid to the voltage required to obtain a certain coefficient of secondary electron multiplication. The graphs are not in parallel so they are slightly different pictures. But they should give a general idea of how much electron multiplication could be obtained by a particular substance.

The following chapters will discuss individual studies and patents. Some of these resource documents contain excellent discussion of historical development of the secondary electron emission devices. It is of note that secondary electron emission was first discovered about a century ago, and the first patent for a vacuum tube as applied for in 1919.

The discussion also includes mention of “work factor” as an indicator of secondary emission coefficient. The lower the work factor the higher the coefficient.

Another area of interest is that of “negative electron affinity” as an explanation for secondary electron emission. In short, the term affinity implies that a particular substance either likes or rejects electrons. The materials with negative electron affinity then are predisposed to not like negatively-charged particles and thus reject them when bombarded.

Treatises on vacuum tubes have been consulted and quoted in pertinent part. Patents are inserted to this anthology to examine their significance at particular points in time. Various studies on the individual materials exhibiting secondary emission.

Finally, I include several of my own designs for multipactor devices to power electrical appliances and motors.

tak

   
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Grumpy: How does a Tesla Reciever convert it to usable current?

That's EXACTLY what you should ask yourself, because I have noticed that most people do not know what a proper tuned TC emits. From electromagnetic to rapidly varying electrostatic pulses and back again. But the field is not created by any corona leakge or by the sparks, this is just a manifestation of the effect, a waste of power. It's the intense field created by the 1/4 wave resonance tied to ground of the secondary, and, it can be reversed as Tesla said. However, in this process it is possible to capture and convert some external source, which is similar in nature and also what makes it so deceptive.
   

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Posts: 3217
tExB=qr
That's EXACTLY what you should ask yourself, because I have noticed that most people do not know what a proper tuned TC emits. From electromagnetic to rapidly varying electrostatic pulses and back again. But the field is not created by any corona leakge or by the sparks, this is just a manifestation of the effect, a waste of power. It's the intense field created by the 1/4 wave resonance tied to ground of the secondary, and, it can be reversed as Tesla said. However, in this process it is possible to capture and convert some external source, which is similar in nature and also what makes it so deceptive.

Well, it looks like Tesla creates a potential difference across the primary of the reciever and this induces current into the secondary which has the load.

Kapanadze's green box device appears to produce a potential difference between opposite ends of the load circuit.

As a side note: anyone ever hear of "soft gamma rays"?
   
Group: Guest
Well, it looks like Tesla creates a potential difference across the primary of the reciever and this induces current into the secondary which has the load.

Kapanadze's green box device appears to produce a potential difference between opposite ends of the load circuit.

As a side note: anyone ever hear of "soft gamma rays"?

  The Tesla wireless system consists of a transimtter coil (primary + secondary) and a matched resonating receiver coil (Apparatus and System of transmission of electrical energy, patents 649,621 and 645,576). The following patents (method and system of signaling) with twin TX and RX uses an identical concept but merely introduces selectivity using coil pairs with variants.

  Kapanadze is exciting the secondary using a 5 turn primary, with no more than 3-5KV judging by the spark gap. What should be investigated is what effect does a primary coil containing a dielectric have on the field as it is not a low voltage.
   
Group: Guest
Ice,

  All of the Tesla coils I have seen usually are built with magnet wire or similar. Even Tesla, on his London coil, used something like 26 gauge wire. On the TK devices he appears to be using 14 or 16 gauge wire with good insulation. How does the Green box unit qualify as a Tesla coil?. Also if the plexi-glass video came out first would we be calling this a Tesla coil? This unit has no copper tube coil it looks nothing like a Tesla device.

Respectfully,

Core
   
Group: Guest
Ice,

  All of the Tesla coils I have seen usually are built with magnet wire or similar. Even Tesla, on his London coil, used something like 26 gauge wire. On the TK devices he appears to be using 14 or 16 gauge wire with good insulation. How does the Green box unit qualify as a Tesla coil?. Also if the plexi-glass video came out first would we be calling this a Tesla coil? This unit has no copper tube coil it looks nothing like a Tesla device.

Respectfully,

Core

I look at Kapanadze GB device as having a Tesla Transformer (similar to coils in cars) not a Tesla Coil.
Just my observation.

DonL

   
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