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Author Topic: Electrolyser Workbench - Personal Thread  (Read 2484 times)
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This thread is where I will be detailing my work, recording my observations and airing my thoughts and opinions. This thread will be kept clean and uncluttered, with all discussion to be undertaken over on the dedicated discussion thread of the same name. I do however reserve the right to bring any pertinent posts from the discussion thread over to here.

As you will now no doubt be aware, I’m not at all convinced that there is any direct action and reaction between the water and the magnetism from Mookie’s Electromagnet, so I will personally be pursuing alternative avenues. However, if these avenues prove to be dead-ends then I may well reconsider magnetism.  But for now I’m rather inclined to think that Mookie’s Accelerator is all about creating cavitaion. And so if you are intending to follow my work here, and if you haven’t done so already, you really would benefit from researching the phenomenon that is cavitation. Don’t take my word for anything, just do some googling to bring yourself up to speed.

It is interesting to note that in many cases cavitation is very undesirable, being extremely destructive and capable of producing severe corrosion. It occurs everywhere from plumbing systems and pipework, liquid pumps and turbines, marine vessels and even in relatively fast-flowing rivers - basically any fluid system that sees pressure variations. There are a number of different terms to describe any particular method of cavitation, which I won’t elaborate on here, but they are:

Hydroponic cavitation (generally low frequency cavitation caused primarily by moving liquid changes in velocity)

Acoustic cavitation (caused by pressure variations due to sound waves)

Optic cavitation (caused by areas of intense photon energy provided by laser)

Particle cavitation (caused by an elementary particle rupturing the liquid)

From our point of view, the interesting thing is that any moving water or any object moving within water can create cavitation. Cavitation occurs simply due to pressure variations in the water whereby molecules themselves can become gaseous, changing phase from liquid to gas – basically the water boils. It is also possible that dissolved gases such as oxygen change to gas state. But this is not the important part of the process. It is when this microscopic bubble of water vapour then collapses in on itself due to the pressure of the surrounding water that things get interesting.

The data provided below is from research using various liquids including water. Some of the research also involves experimental methods creating cavitation by means unfamiliar to pump users including the use of sound waves and lasers.
For ease of writing and clarity, this document makes a sharp differentiation between "bubbles" and "cavities". Although both terms refer to accumulations of gas phase molecules in a liquid, commonly called bubbles, there is a huge difference between the two types of "bubbles".

Cavities - Pockets of gas in a pumpage caused by the cavitation process. These pockets of gas originate as pumpage molecules change phases from a liquid into gas phase, followed by the near instantaneous implosion of these same cavities as the molecules change phases from gas back to liquid, the implosion releasing extreme energies in the form of shock wave pressures and heat. The phase change behavior of water is near instantaneous, so the cavities are created very fast. At first, the cavities are microscopic. If conditions are correct, the cavities can coalesce into larger and larger bubbles, eventually becoming macroscopic. When cavities coalesce into large cavities the term "Super Cavities" or "Super Cavitation" may be used to describe the cavities.

Bubbles - Bubbles are defined as pockets of gas that, regardless of their source, for the most part do not involve molecules changing phases, do not involve near instantaneous creation of or the near instantaneous implosion of those bubbles, and therefore bubbles do not release immense pressures and heat that damage equipment. Bubbles may cause some damage to equipment by exposing seal faces or by causing the pump to lose prime. Bubbles can change during the pumping process by compression and by diffusion into or out of solution in the pumpage. But Diffusion is a slow and orderly process that cannot produce the immense energies such as occur during the molecular phase changes involved in cavitation.

Energy released by cavity collapse is intense, but on a microscopic scale. Even experienced engineers are surprised by the intensities measured and reported in the literature.

Value ranges found in the literature for cavitation phenomena are:

PRESSURE - Six sources show a range of 12,000 psi to 150,000 psi.
TEMPERATURE - Five sources show a range of 6,700 K to 10,000 K.
VELOCITY - Four sources show a range of 300 ft./sec. to 4,000 ft./sec.
VOLUME - 1,700 fold change in volume approximately.
TIME - One source reports the total time of collapse to be less than 2 microseconds, including two or more shock waves with durations of 10 nanoseconds and 40 nanoseconds each.
SIZE - One source measured the diameter of the microjet occurring in the collapse as ranging from 10-100 µm .
The data above was given to show the extreme nature of cavitation. Even if you take only the lowest most conservative values, the results still exhibit energy levels capable of damaging any known structural material, and why "cavities" are vastly different than other types of bubbles.

By way of reference, the source of the above information can be found here: http://www.irrigationcraft.com/cavitation_process.htm

So, unlike standard electrolysis, cavitation creates extremes of temperature and pressure that, although exist at a microscopic level, can cause transmutation of the water molecule.

I should add that science does not appear to have all the answers regarding cavitation, so there are unknowns, but here is a list of the radical species and known reactions resulting from the action of cavitation in water:

Radical species: H, OH, HO2 and H2O2

H2O = -OH + +H (what we see in normal electrolysis)
+H + -H = H2
-OH + +OH = H2O2
+H + O2 = +H2O
+H + HO2 = +H2O2
+HO2 + -HO2 = H2O2 + O2
+HO2 + -OH = H2O + O2

There is a minimum energy threshold that has to be attained before cavitation initiates, and certainly frequency and energy intensity play a part. In fact it appears that not all cavitation is equal and the resulting radicals may to some extent be dependent on the energy that is creating the cavitation.  Though cavitation can occur from very low frequencies and relatively low energies, it seems most of the research into cavitation is done in the ultrasonic range from 20KHz - 1MHz.

The more I research this the more I feel that the likes of the late Stanley Meyer may well have unknowingly been initiating some degree of cavitation within his WFCs.  This possibly explains claims of unusually high gas output, and indeed claims of over-Faraday.

Current carrying electrodes being pulsed at some given frequency in the kHz range may well have been oscillating in direct response to the input signal due to interacting magnetic fields. In which case the pulsing nature of the standard electrolysis occurring could initiate cavitation as a by-product. If so, this could explain so much.

What I feel has very likely hindered progress in this area immensely, is the truck-loads of misinformation, pseudoscience and wild conjecture that has usually accompanied these claims.

Now with all this in mind I initially plan to determine the following:

1. Are the bubbles created by Mookie’s EM due to magnetism… or simply a by-product of the EM interacting with the electrolyser’s magnetic field so inducing mechanical oscillations which results in cavitation? 

2. Are resulting excess of bubbles hydrogen and oxygen… or simply water vapour?

Once I’m happy with what I determine here, I’ll move on to new experiments.

For now, I need to get my hands a little dirty and do some practical.

Please note

This thread is where I will be detailing my work, recording my observations and airing my thoughts and opinions. This thread will be kept clean and uncluttered, with all discussion to be undertaken over on the dedicated discussion thread of the same name. I do however reserve the right to bring any pertinent posts from the discussion thread over to here.

   
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