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Let's learn some pump fundamentals courtesy of Jacques Chaurette:

http://www.pumpfundamentals.com/tutorial1.htm#Anchor-Ther-19499

Nice little kitchen experiment by Jacques Chaurette, showing the awesome unseen power of atmospheric pressure:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WcILL9QPUoM

tutorial.pdf by Jacques attached for further offline study.

Thankyou Jacques!  O0


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hho gas detonation water pump device:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c76yT2DslP8

Jump to 09:25 for the important visual data.. Is the majority of the water being pumped in 2009 by the gas creation/bleeding cycle, or is it from the explosion/implosion event ?

What stable pressure before auto ignition occurs can the gas created on demand sustain ? Is this a controllable repeatable phenomena ?

217 psi = 500 foot of head.

http://www.convertunits.com/from/psi/to/foot+of+head

How is flow rate related to gas production ? How is gas production related to electrical Power IN ? What parts of the system are hydraulic and what is pneumatic ?

Is temperature related to pressure in a fixed volume ? How does that change when the chamber volume increases due to a moving fluid displaced piston ?

If the work done by the gas displacement and the work done by the combustion cycle are separate events, can the ratio be varied without affecting primary operation of the device ? Yes it can.  O0

http://www.seabirdadventure.com/tesla-turbine-publisher/184-superheated-electrolysis-and-adiabatic-compression
  


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Cyclical pressure treatment of wood is an alternative application I am looking at for hhop technology.

Page 2 of the pdf shows the vacuum pressure cycles required which are well within hhop capabilities.


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« Last Edit: 2015-06-13, 16:28:43 by evolvingape »


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hhop gen 3  8)



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Buoyancy

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buoyancy

In science, buoyancy (pronunciation: /ˈbɔɪ.ənᵗsi/[1][2] or /ˈbuːjənᵗsi/)[1][2] (also known as upthrust) is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus a column of fluid, or an object submerged in the fluid, experiences greater pressure at the bottom of the column than at the top. This difference in pressure results in a net force that tends to accelerate an object upwards. The magnitude of that force is proportional to the difference in the pressure between the top and the bottom of the column, and (as explained by Archimedes' principle) is also equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the column, i.e. the displaced fluid.

For this reason, an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink. If the object is either less dense than the liquid or is shaped appropriately (as in a boat), the force can keep the object afloat. This can occur only in a reference frame which either has a gravitational field or is accelerating due to a force other than gravity defining a "downward" direction (that is, a non-inertial reference frame). In a situation of fluid statics, the net upward buoyancy force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of fluid displaced by the body.[3]

Density

If the weight of an object is less than the weight of the displaced fluid when fully submerged, then the object has an average density that is less than the fluid and when fully submerged will experience a buoyancy force greater than its own weight. If the fluid has a surface, such as water in a lake or the sea, the object will float and settle at a level where it displaces the same weight of fluid as the weight of the object. If the object is immersed in the fluid, such as a submerged submarine or air in a balloon, it will tend to rise. If the object has exactly the same density as the fluid, then its buoyancy equals its weight. It will remain submerged in the fluid, but it will neither sink nor float, although a disturbance in either direction will cause it to drift away from its position. An object with a higher average density than the fluid will never experience more buoyancy than weight and it will sink. A ship will float even though it may be made of steel (which is much denser than water), because it encloses a volume of air (which is much less dense than water), and the resulting shape has an average density less than that of the water.


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hhop 3 drawing update

Thanks for the help with the valve timing Graham!   O0


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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminal_velocity

Terminal velocity in the presence of buoyancy force

When the buoyancy effects are taken into account, an object falling through a fluid under its own weight can reach a terminal velocity (settling velocity) if the net force acting on the object becomes zero. When the terminal velocity is reached the weight of the object is exactly balanced by the upward buoyancy force and drag force. That is

W = F_b + D

where

    W = weight of the object,
    F_b = buoyancy force acting on the object, and
    D = drag force acting on the object.

By displacing liquid and replacing it with gas the electrolysis cell is doing work, a mass transfer has occurred and the weight of the object, along with the density and gravitational acceleration has reduced. The gas exhausted externally lowers the density of the liquid hydraulic medium, it becomes semi-elastic and reduces drag on the object ascending.

We have altered all three of the variables and therefore the result which the equation defines has become a variable within the specific gravity field.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_%28physics%29#Field_theory

Field theory usually refers to a construction of the dynamics of a field, i.e. a specification of how a field changes with time or with respect to other independent physical variables on which the field depends. Usually this is done by writing a Lagrangian or a Hamiltonian of the field, and treating it as the classical mechanics (or quantum mechanics) of a system with an infinite number of degrees of freedom. The resulting field theories are referred to as classical or quantum field theories.

The dynamics of a classical field are usually specified by the Lagrangian density in terms of the field components; the dynamics can be obtained by using the action principle.

It is possible to construct simple fields without any a priori knowledge of physics using only mathematics from several variable calculus, potential theory and partial differential equations (PDEs). For example, scalar PDEs might consider quantities such as amplitude, density and pressure fields for the wave equation and fluid dynamics; temperature/concentration fields for the heat/diffusion equations.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specific_gravity

Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density (mass of the same unit volume) of a reference substance. Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of the reference substance. The reference substance is nearly always water at its densest, (4°C) for liquids and for gases, air at room temperature, (21°C). That being stated temperature and pressure must be specified for both the sample and the reference.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalar_field

In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space. The scalar may either be a mathematical number or a physical quantity. Scalar fields are required to be coordinate-independent, meaning that any two observers using the same units will agree on the value of the scalar field at the same point in space (or spacetime). Examples used in physics include the temperature distribution throughout space, the pressure distribution in a fluid, and spin-zero quantum fields, such as the Higgs field. These fields are the subject of scalar field theory.




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Scalar gravity field theory defined within a specific gravity field frame of reference ?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalar_theories_of_gravitation


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How to Grow Food in the Middle of a Desert Using Seawater

http://gizmodo.com/how-to-grow-food-in-the-middle-of-a-desert-using-seawat-1592148078

As conventional sources of clean water dry up, we're looking ever farther, wider, and deeper. In a long feature on unusual sources of water, Nature leads us somewhere especially unexpected—into the middle of a desert. The Sahara Forest Project wants to prove we can green the desert, turning barren land into oases of cucumbers and melons. And the water? It'll come from the sea.

The unusual idea is made possible by greenhouses, but not greenhouses as you know them. Instead of trapping heat, the Sahara Forest Project's greenhouses are cool and moist. Here's how Science described the pilot facility in the Qatar last year:

    At one end, salt water is trickled over a gridlike curtain so that the prevailing wind blows the resulting cool, moist air over the plants inside. This cooling effect allowed the Qatar facility to grow three crops per year, even in the scorching summer. At the other end of the greenhouse is a network of pipes with cold seawater running through them. Some of the moisture in the air condenses on the pipes and is collected, providing a source of fresh water.

Surprisingly, moist air leaking out from the greenhouse encouraged plants around the buildings, too. While cucumbers and tomatoes grew inside the greenhouse, arugula and barley could grow right outside.

The facility also takes advantage of one natural resource in abundance in the desert: sun. Solar panels generate electricity for the pump systems, and excess electricity can go toward desalination of additional seawater.

Last year, the Sahara Forest Project harvested the first crops from its pilot location in the Qatari desert. Their yield was comparable to a traditional greenhouse of the same size, and now they're aiming to build a larger test facility in Jordan. As all new tech goes, this is currently an incredibly expensive way to grow some salad. That could change, though, especially in an increasingly thirsty world.

The piece over at Nature has several other slightly crazy but somehow plausible water ideas, like harvesting fog and reviving 2,000-year-old waterworks. Just another reminder that getting clean water is a lot more complicated than turning on your faucet.

Electrolysis of Salt Water

http://aquarius.nasa.gov/pdfs/electrolysis.pdf

Growing food in the desert: is this the solution to the world's food crisis?

http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/nov/24/growing-food-in-the-desert-crisis


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Gravity mapped onto a specific gravity field frame of reference (solid, liquid,gas) is a scalar field with instant pressure communication; hhop has a definable vector within the scalar field.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalar%E2%80%93tensor_theory

Scalar–tensor theory
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In theoretical physics, a scalar–tensor theory is a theory that includes both a scalar field and a tensor field to represent a certain interaction. For example, the Brans–Dicke theory of gravitation uses both a scalar field and a tensor field to mediate the gravitational interaction.

Contents

    1 Tensor fields and field theory
    2 Gravity as field theory
        2.1 Mathematical formulation
            2.1.1 The Newtonian approximation of the theory
            2.1.2 The first post-Newtonian approximation of the theory
    3 Observational constraints on the theory
    4 Higher-dimensional relativity and scalar–tensor theories
    5 Connection to string theory
    6 Other possible scalar–tensor theories
        6.1 Theories with non-minimal scalar-matter coupling
    7 References

Tensor fields and field theory

Modern physics tries to derive all physical theories from as few principles as possible. In this way, Newtonian mechanics as well as quantum mechanics are derived from Hamilton's principle of least action. In this approach, the behavior of a system is not described via forces, but by functions which describe the energy of the system. Most important are the energetic quantities known as the Hamilton function (or Hamiltonian) and the Lagrange function (or Lagrangian). Their derivatives in space are known as Hamiltonian or Hamilton density and Lagrangian or Lagrange density. Going to these quantities leads to the field theories.

Modern physics uses field theories to explain reality. These fields can be scalar, vectorial or tensorial. For them, there is:

    Scalars are tensors of rank zero.
    Vectors are tensors of rank one.
    Matrices are tensors of rank two.

Scalars are numbers, quantities of the form f(x), like the temperature. Vectors are more general and show a direction. In them, every component of the direction is a scalar. Tensors (degree 2) are a wider generalization, the best known example of which are matrices (that can give equation systems). Higher order tensors are found for example in the deformation theory and in General Relativity.

Gravity as field theory

In physics, forces (as vectorial quantities) are given as the derivative (gradient) of scalar quantities named potentials. In classical physics before Einstein, gravitation was given in the same way, as consequence of a gravitational force (vectorial), given through a scalar potential field, dependent of the mass of the particles. Thus, Newtonian gravity is called a scalar theory. The gravitational force is dependent of the distance r of the massive objects to each other (more exactly, their centre of mass). Mass is a parameter and space and time are unchangeable.

    Einstein's theory of gravity, the General Relativity is of another nature. It unifies space and time in a 4-dimensional manifold called space-time that depends upon mass itself. In General Relativity there is no gravitational force, but instead a curvature of space-time. The curvature is a consequence of mass and in linear approximation it is identifiable with a force. This force is the derivative of the so-called metric as potential. The metric of General Relativity possesses the characteristics of space-time and it is a tensorial quantity of degree 2 (it can be given as a 4x4 matrix, an object carrying 2 indices).

    Another possibility to explain gravitation in this context is by using both tensor (of degree n>1) and scalar fields, i.e. so that gravitation is not only given through a scalar field nor through the metric. These are scalar–tensor theories of gravitation.

    The field theoretical start of General Relativity is given through the Lagrange density. It is a scalar and gauge invariant (look at gauge theories) quantity dependent on the curvature scalar R. This Lagrangian, following Hamilton's principle, leads to the field equations of Hilbert and Einstein. If in the Lagrangian the curvature (or a quantity related to it) is multiplied with a square scalar field, field theories of scalar–tensor theories of gravitation are obtained. In them, the gravitational constant of Newton is no longer a real constant but a quantity dependent of the scalar field.


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Phase Transition

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_transition

A phase transition is the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one phase or state of matter to another one by heat transfer. The term is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma. A phase of a thermodynamic system and the states of matter have uniform physical properties. During a phase transition of a given medium certain properties of the medium change, often discontinuously, as a result of the change of some external condition, such as temperature, pressure, or others. For example, a liquid may become gas upon heating to the boiling point, resulting in an abrupt change in volume. The measurement of the external conditions at which the transformation occurs is termed the phase transition. Phase transitions are common in nature and used today in many technologies.

Should we be quibbling about teminology ? Yes, I think we should. Phase change and phase transition are often used to describe the same phenomena so it needs ironing out.

Faraday electrolysis (DC) will electrolytically split liquid water into Hydrogen and Oxygen gas, with a variable amount of water vapor and steam present in the gas product.

DC resistance will create a thermal heat transfer and water vapor acting as a gas will be created.

From this we can deduce that two different types of gas, with different properties to be exploited, can be created from identical electrical source inputs which are used differently.

On Earth we have water as the liquid within the specific gravity field and air as the gas layer which provides CO2. Methane is a potential product via various applications of the Sabatier reaction:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabatier_reaction

"The stoichiometric ratio of oxidizer and fuel is 2:1, for an oxygen:methane engine."

hhop generates the electricity input required to make H + O from linear reciprocation within specific gravity field.


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Lets have a look at some of the competition to hhop gen 3..

http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:_Hidro_--_Water_Pressures_Energy_Conversion_%28WAPEC%29

Electrolysis efficiency will be greater than air compression efficiency.

hhop gen 3 produces a fuel (Hydrogen + Oxygen) at the output 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year with the energy needed to do that provided by the manipulation of the specific gravity field.. You want clean renewable energy.. you just got it  O0

Later on this evening I will examine the potential for hhop gen 3 technology to be applied to an alternative specific gravity field frame of reference.. how about Saturn's moon, Titan..

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3131423/Is-Titan-Earth-s-toxic-twin-Saturn-s-moon-Earth-like-polar-winds-waterfalls-rainfall-sea.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane

Methane (/ˈmɛθeɪn/ or /ˈmiːθeɪn/) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4 (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen). It is the simplest alkane and the main component of natural gas. The relative abundance of methane makes it an attractive fuel, though capturing and storing it poses challenges due to its gaseous state found at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. In its natural state, methane is found both below ground, and under the sea floor, where it often finds its way to the surface and in the atmosphere of Earth where it is known as atmospheric methane.[5]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonization_of_the_outer_Solar_System

Many parts of the outer Solar System have been considered for possible future colonization. Most of the larger moons of the outer planets contain water ice, liquid water, and organic compounds that might be useful for sustaining human life.[1][2]

Colonies in the outer Solar System could also serve as centers for long-term investigation of the planet and the other moons. In particular, robotic devices could be controlled by humans without the very long time delays needed to communicate with Earth.

There have also been proposals to place robotic aerostats in the upper atmospheres of the Solar System's gas giant planets for exploration and possibly mining of helium-3, which could have a very high value per unit mass as a thermonuclear fuel.[3][4]

Dr. Robert Zubrin has pointed out that Titan possesses an abundance of all the elements necessary to support life, saying "In certain ways, Titan is the most hospitable extraterrestrial world within our solar system for human colonization." [6] The atmosphere contains plentiful nitrogen and methane, and strong evidence indicates that liquid methane exists on the surface. Evidence also indicates the presence of liquid water and ammonia under the surface, which are delivered to the surface by volcanic activity. Water can easily be used to generate breathable oxygen and nitrogen is ideal to add buffer gas partial pressure to breathable air (it forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere).[7] Nitrogen, methane and ammonia can all be used to produce fertilizer for growing food.


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hhop gen 3+  8)


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Purification methods

Distilled water is produced by a process of distillation and has an electrical conductivity of not more than 11 µS/cm and total dissolved solids of less than 10 mg/litre.[1] Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the vapor into a clean container, leaving solid contaminants behind. Distillation produces very pure water. A white or yellowish mineral scale is left in the distillation apparatus, which requires regular cleaning. Distillation alone does not guarantee the absence of bacteria in drinking water unless containers are also sterilized. For many procedures, more economical alternatives are available, such as deionized water, and are used in place of distilled water.

Double distillation

Double-distilled water (abbreviated "ddH2O", "Bidest. water" or "DDW") is prepared by slow boiling the uncontaminated condensed water vapor from a prior slow boiling. Historically, it was the de facto standard for highly purified laboratory water for biochemistry and used in laboratory trace analysis until combination purification methods of water purification became widespread.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purified_water#Double_distillation

Heat from hho flame to distill. Multi stage apparatus. Combined heat and power. Gravity differential input potable water out. Scaleable.  :'(

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PivWY9wn5ps


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 >:-)


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Heat from hho flame to distill.

Heat from hho flame to Sabatier reaction:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabatier_reaction

It has been proposed in a renewable-energy-dominated energy system to use the excess electricity generated by wind, solar photovoltaic, hydro, marine current, etc. to make methane (natural gas) via water electrolysis and the subsequent application of the Sabatier reaction.[1][2] In contrast to a direct usage of hydrogen for transport or energy storage applications,[3] the methane can be injected into the existing gas network, which in many countries has one or two years of gas storage capacity. The methane can then be used on demand to generate electricity (and heat—combined heat and power) overcoming low points of renewable energy production. The process is electrolysis of water by electricity to create hydrogen (which can partly be used directly in fuel cells) and the addition of carbon dioxide CO2 (Sabatier process) to create methane. The CO2 can be extracted from the air or fossil fuel waste gases by the amine process, amongst many others. It is a low-CO2 system, and has similar efficiencies of today's energy system. A 250 kW demonstration plant was ready in 2012 in Germany.[4]


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http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/mars/marssurf.html

Carbon dioxide electrolysis is a possible solution to the oxygen deficit problem. While still under development, this process uses zirconia cells at high temperatures to decompose carbon dioxide. This process could be performed on Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide, producing oxygen and carbon monoxide. The carbon monoxide would be vented into the atmosphere and the oxygen would be cryogenically stored for use as MAV propellant and/or life support reserves for the crew.

Quote
The carbon monoxide would be vented into the atmosphere

Flammability limits of hydrogen–carbon monoxide mixtures at moderately elevated temperatures

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360319900001142

Abstract

Consistent data for the flammability limits of different hydrogen–carbon monoxide mixtures were determined experimentally over a wide range of compositions and initial temperatures up to (300°C) and at atmospheric pressure for upward flame propagation in a stainless-steel test tube apparatus. Experimental results also showed that the lean flammability limits of hydrogen–carbon monoxide mixtures obeyed Le Chatelier's Rule over the entire range of temperature considered when the corresponding individual limit values of the components were employed. However, the rich flammability limits deviated very significantly from the corresponding values calculated using this Rule, especially for mixtures containing small concentrations of hydrogen. The rich limits predicted by the Rule were narrower than those obtained experimentally. To investigate the existence of pre-ignition reactions at these levels of temperature and their effect on the flammability limits, the hydrogen–carbon monoxide–air mixtures were exposed to elevated temperatures over different periods of time varying from 5 to 30 min before spark ignition was employed to establish whether the mixture is flammable or not. It was shown that duration of the waiting time before spark ignition affected significantly the values of the flammability limits especially at higher temperatures and for rich mixtures. Additionally, the effect of the presence of water vapour in the fuel–air mixture was investigated.


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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weight

Definitions

Several definitions exist for weight, not all of which are equivalent.[3][7][8][9]
Gravitational definition

The most common definition of weight found in introductory physics textbooks defines weight as the force exerted on a body by gravity.[1][9] This is often expressed in the formula W = mg, where W is the weight, m the mass of the object, and g gravitational acceleration.

In 1901, the 3rd General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) established this as their official definition of weight:

    "The word weight denotes a quantity of the same nature[Note 1] as a force: the weight of a body is the product of its mass and the acceleration due to gravity."

    — Resolution 2 of the 3rd General Conference on Weights and Measures[11][12]

This resolution defines weight as a vector, since force is a vector quantity. However, some textbooks also take weight to be a scalar by defining:

    "The weight W of a body is equal to the magnitude Fg of the gravitational force on the body."[13]

The gravitational acceleration varies from place to place. Sometimes, it is simply taken to a have a standard value of 9.80665 m/s2, which gives the standard weight.[11]

The force whose magnitude is equal to mg newtons is also known as the m kilogram weight (which term is abbreviated to kg-wt)[14]

Operational definition

In the operational definition, the weight of an object is the force measured by the operation of weighing it, which is the force it exerts on its support.[7] This can make a considerable difference, depending on the details; for example, an object in free fall exerts little if any force on its support, a situation that is commonly referred to as weightlessness. However, being in free fall does not affect the weight according to the gravitational definition. Therefore, the operational definition is sometimes refined by requiring that the object be at rest.[citation needed] However, this raises the issue of defining "at rest" (usually being at rest with respect to the Earth is implied by using standard gravity[citation needed]). In the operational definition, the weight of an object at rest on the surface of the Earth is lessened by the effect of the centrifugal force from the Earth's rotation.

The operational definition, as usually given, does not explicitly exclude the effects of buoyancy, which reduces the measured weight of an object when it is immersed in a fluid such as air or water. As a result, a floating balloon or an object floating in water might be said to have zero weight.

ISO definition

In the ISO International standard ISO 80000-4(2006),[15] describing the basic physical quantities and units in mechanics as a part of the International standard ISO/IEC 80000, the definition of weight is given as:

    Definition

        F_g = mg
        where m is mass and g is local acceleration of free fall.

    Remarks

        It should be noted that, when the reference frame is Earth, this quantity comprises not only the local gravitational force, but also the local centrifugal force due to the rotation of the Earth, a force which varies with latitude.
        The effect of atmospheric buoyancy is excluded in the weight.
        In common parlance, the name "weight" continues to be used where "mass" is meant, but this practice is deprecated.

    — ISO 80000-4 (2006)

The definition is dependent on the chosen frame of reference. When the chosen frame is co-moving with the object in question then this definition precisely agrees with the operational definition.[8] If the specified frame is the surface of the Earth, the weight according to the ISO and gravitational definitions differ only by the centrifugal effects due to the rotation of the Earth.


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

Group: Moderator
Hero Member
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Posts: 2578
Everyman decries immorality
The eco-friendly batmobile: BMW reveals hydrogen 'stealth' prototype can go 300 miles on a tank (and refill in five minutes)

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3148876/BMW-reveals-eco-friendly-batmobile-New-hydrogen-prototype-300-miles-tank-refill-five-minutes.html#comments

Petrol or LPG … do the fuel cost savings add up?

http://www.theguardian.com/money/2012/jul/13/petrol-lpg-fuel-cost-savings

Liquefied petroleum gas

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquefied_petroleum_gas

Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.

It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant[citation needed], replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer. When specifically used as a vehicle fuel it is often referred to as autogas.

Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are primarily propane (C3H8), primarily butane (C4H10) and, most commonly, mixes including both propane and butane. In winter, the mixes contain more propane, while in summer, they contain more butane.

Methane

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane

Methane (/ˈmɛθeɪn/ or /ˈmiːθeɪn/) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4 (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen). It is the simplest alkane and the main component of natural gas. The relative abundance of methane makes it an attractive fuel, though capturing and storing it poses challenges due to its gaseous state found at standard conditions for temperature and pressure.

Sabatier reaction

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabatier_reaction

The Sabatier reaction or Sabatier process was discovered by the French chemist Paul Sabatier in the 1910s. It involves the reaction of hydrogen with carbon dioxide at elevated temperatures (optimally 300–400 °C) and pressures in the presence of a nickel catalyst to produce methane and water.

Energy storage

It has been proposed in a renewable-energy-dominated energy system to use the excess electricity generated by wind, solar photovoltaic, hydro, marine current, etc. to make methane (natural gas) via water electrolysis and the subsequent application of the Sabatier reaction.[1][2] In contrast to a direct usage of hydrogen for transport or energy storage applications,[3] the methane can be injected into the existing gas network, which in many countries has one or two years of gas storage capacity. The methane can then be used on demand to generate electricity (and heat—combined heat and power) overcoming low points of renewable energy production. The process is electrolysis of water by electricity to create hydrogen (which can partly be used directly in fuel cells) and the addition of carbon dioxide CO2 (Sabatier process) to create methane. The CO2 can be extracted from the air or fossil fuel waste gases by the amine process, amongst many others. It is a low-CO2 system, and has similar efficiencies of today's energy system. A 250 kW demonstration plant was ready in 2012 in Germany.[4]

hhop gen 3 is designed to produce Hydrogen and Oxygen from water with gravity providing the power input prime mover energy source.  8)


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Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   

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Everyman decries immorality
Ethane

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethane

Ethane was first synthesised in 1834 by Michael Faraday, applying electrolysis of a potassium acetate solution. He mistook the hydrocarbon product of this reaction for methane, and did not investigate it further.[4] During the period 1847–1849, in an effort to vindicate the radical theory of organic chemistry, Hermann Kolbe and Edward Frankland produced ethane by the reductions of propionitrile (ethyl cyanide)[5] and ethyl iodide[6] with potassium metal, and, as did Faraday, by the electrolysis of aqueous acetates. They, however, mistook the product of these reactions for methyl radical, rather than the dimer of methyl, ethane. This error was corrected in 1864 by Carl Schorlemmer, who showed that the product of all these reactions was in fact ethane.[7]

The name ethane is derived from the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry. "Eth-" refers to the presence of 2 carbon atoms, and "-ane" refers to the presence of a single bond between them.

In the laboratory, ethane may be conveniently prepared by Kolbe electrolysis. In this technique, an aqueous solution of an acetate salt is electrolysed. At the anode, acetate is oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and methyl radicals, and the highly reactive methyl radicals combine to produce ethane.


Acetic acid


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetic_acid

Acetic acid /əˈsiːtɨk/, systematically named ethanoic acid /ˌɛθəˈnoʊɨk/, is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2). It is a colourless liquid that when undiluted is also called glacial acetic acid. Vinegar is roughly 3-9% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water. Acetic acid has a distinctive sour taste and pungent smell. Besides its production as household vinegar, it is mainly produced as a precursor to polyvinylacetate and cellulose acetate. Although it is classified as a weak acid, concentrated acetic acid is corrosive and can attack the skin.

Acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid (after formic acid) and is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical, mainly used in the production of cellulose acetate for photographic film and polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, as well as synthetic fibers and fabrics. In households, diluted acetic acid is often used in descaling agents. In the food industry, acetic acid is used under the food additive code E260 as an acidity regulator and as a condiment. As a food additive it is approved for usage in many countries, including Canada,[8] the European Union,[9] the United States,[10] and Australia and New Zealand.[11]

The global demand of acetic acid is around 6.5 million tonnes per year (Mt/a), of which approximately 1.5 Mt/a is met by recycling; the remainder is manufactured from petrochemical feedstock.[12] As a chemical reagent, biological sources of acetic acid are of interest, but generally uncompetitive. Vinegar is dilute acetic acid, often produced by fermentation and subsequent oxidation of ethanol.

Propane

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propane

Propane (/ˈproʊpeɪn/) is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8, normally a gas, but compressible to a transportable liquid. A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as a fuel for engines, oxy-gas torches, portable stoves, and residential central heating. Propane is one of a group of liquefied petroleum gases (LP gases). The others include butane, propylene, butadiene, butylene, isobutylene and mixtures thereof.

Propane containing too much propene (also called propylene) is not suited for most vehicle fuels. HD-5 is a specification that establishes a maximum concentration of 5% propene in propane. Propane and other LP gas specifications are established in ASTM D-1835.[5] All propane fuels include an odorant, almost always ethanethiol, so that people can easily smell the gas in case of a leak. Propane as HD-5 was originally intended for use as vehicle fuel. HD-5 is currently being used in all propane applications.

Turning methane into usable liquid fuel

http://www.rdmag.com/news/2014/08/turning-methane-usable-liquid-fuel

Researchers from the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE)’s Argonne National Laboratory and the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) were awarded $2 million over the course of two years to fund studies on hybrid fuel cells from the Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy (ARPA-E).

ARPA-E, an agency within the DOE, was specially created to fund high-risk, high-reward energy research projects and was modeled after the similar defense agency, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, or DARPA. Argonne was one of 13 projects aimed at developing new fuel cell technology as part of ARPA-E’s Reliable Electricity Based on Electrochemical Systems (REBELS) program.

The research seeks to create a fuel cell that would both produce electricity and convert methane gas to ethane or ethylene that could then be converted to a liquid fuel or valuable chemicals. These cells could use natural gas—which is mostly made up of methane—directly.

With the advent of shale gas drilling techniques, methane is fairly abundant and frequently produced as a byproduct in drilling operations. Unfortunately, it is often burned off because it is expensive to transport in gas form, and few natural gas pipelines exist. Finding a less expensive way to instead turn that methane into liquid fuel—such as the hybrid fuel cell promises—could reduce waste and provide energy.

In the fuel cell, researchers plan to add a catalyst that helps make the reaction more efficient, breaking methane up and recombining it into hydrogen—which is then consumed by the fuel cell—and ethylene. The hope is that combining the steps will make the reaction more efficient.

“The ethylene is just a first step, a placeholder for proof-of-concept,” said Argonne chemical engineer Ted Krause, who is heading the project. “The overall goal is to produce liquid fuel from methane.”

Turning Carbon Dioxide and Methane into Liquid Fuels


http://oilprice.com/Energy/Energy-General/Turning-Carbon-Dioxide-and-Methane-into-Liquid-Fuels.html

Liviu M. Mirica, PhD, assistant professor of chemistry at Washington University in St. Louis may have found and is developing a novel metal catalyst that would be able to turn greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide into liquid fuels without producing more carbon waste in the process.

Mirica describes a new metal complex that can combine methyl groups (CH3) in the presence of oxygen to produce ethane (CH3-CH3) in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

So far the return to fuel from combustion products has been a losing proposition because making carbon dioxide into a fuel uses up more energy than combustion releases and produces more carbon dioxide than it reclaims.  Mirica asserts, with some evidence now, it’s not impossible.

This could put a whole new take on petroleum and carbohydrate fuels, instead of being a polluting one-way street, hydrocarbon chemistry could circle back on itself and become a clean carbon-neutral cycle, even though still consuming some energy.

The new catalyst combines methyl groups (CH3) molecules in the presence of oxygen to produce ethane, the second step in the conversion of methane (CH4), the main component of natural gas, into a longer-chain hydrocarbon, or liquid fuel.  Mirica’s team is currently tweaking the complex so that it will be perform the firs step in the methane-to-ethane conversion, too.

Hydrocarbons are so useful because they pack energy in their chemical bonds and release that energy when they are burned. Thus, they’re essentially convenient little energy packages.  Reactions that release energy, however, are reluctant to reverse themselves and the more energy they release, the more reluctant they are to return.

So far there’s no way around this problem; if a reaction released energy both going forward and going backward, it could fuel a perpetual motion machine, which, of course, is an impossibility.  But, it’s possible to make hydrocarbon combustion reactions run backward — either by brute force or by finesse.

The brute force way is to pump in energy.  Old technology such as used to convert coal to oil worked only at high temperatures and pressures and much more energy was used to drive the reactions than was ultimately stored in synthetic oil they produced.

The finesse path is to devise a chemical compound, a catalyst that takes the reactants up an alternative, lower energy pathway to the reaction-produced products. In effect, instead of going straight up the energy hill, the reaction takes a more manageable — ideally the minimal-energy– series of switchbacks up to the top.

The background:  Last year Mirica’s group was working with a palladium compound that they hoped could catalyze the splitting of water. “The catalyst we made for that reaction worked,” says Mirica, “but not as well as we hoped. But we noticed it was easily oxidized, even by the oxygen in air.  This was our first hint that this might be an interesting system. So then we asked what else we could use it for.”

“One of our ideas was to use it to turn methane into ethane.” Methane, the main component of natural gas, is released sometimes in large amounts when an oil well is first tapped.  Turning methane to ethane, says Mirica, could be the first step in a process of building longer-chain hydrocarbons such as butane and octane, which are liquid at convenient temperatures and pressures and so could easily be transported to distant users.

hhop gen 3 manipulates the specific gravity field to provide a gravitational energy input and an electrical system output, with hho (Hydrogen + Oxygen + Water Vapour) waste product ejected as gas exhaust on each cycle.


---------------------------
Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.
Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.
Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
   
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