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 Re: hhop « Reply #100 on: 2015-11-09, 18:24:54 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality Fluid Pressurehttp://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/pressure.htmlAn important property of any gas is its pressure. We have some experience with gas pressure that we don't have with properties like viscosity and compressibility. Every day we hear the TV meteorologist give value of the barometric pressure of the atmosphere (29.8 inches of mercury, for example). And most of us have blown up a balloon or used a pump to inflate a bicycle tire or a basketball.Because understanding what pressure is and how it works is so fundamental to the understanding of aerodynamics, we are including several slides on gas pressure in the Beginner's Guide. An interactive atmosphere simulator allows you to study how static air pressure changes with altitude. The FoilSim program shows you how the pressure varies around a lifting wing, and the EngineSim program shows how the pressure changes through a turbine engine. Another simulator helps you study how pressure changes across shock waves that occur at high speeds. There are two ways to look at pressure: (1) the small scale action of individual air molecules or (2) the large scale action of a large number of molecules.Molecular Definition of PressureFrom the kinetic theory of gases, a gas is composed of a large number of molecules that are very small relative to the distance between molecules. The molecules of a gas are in constant, random motion and frequently collide with each other and with the walls of any container. The molecules possess the physical properties of mass, momentum, and energy. The momentum of a single molecule is the product of its mass and velocity, while the kinetic energy is one half the mass times the square of the velocity. As the gas molecules collide with the walls of a container, as shown on the left of the figure, the molecules impart momentum to the walls, producing a force perpendicular to the wall. The sum of the forces of all the molecules striking the wall divided by the area of the wall is defined to be the pressure. The pressure of a gas is then a measure of the average linear momentum of the moving molecules of a gas. The pressure acts perpendicular (normal) to the wall; the tangential (shear) component of the force is related to the viscosity of the gas.Scalar QuantityLet us look at a static gas; one that does not appear to move or flow. While the gas as a whole does not appear to move, the individual molecules of the gas, which we cannot see, are in constant random motion. Because we are dealing with a nearly infinite number of molecules and because the motion of the individual molecules is random in every direction, we do not detect any motion. If we enclose the gas within a container, we detect a pressure in the gas from the molecules colliding with the walls of our container. We can put the walls of our container anywhere inside the gas, and the force per area (the pressure) is the same. We can shrink the size of our "container" down to an infinitely small point, and the pressure has a single value at that point. Therefore, pressure is a scalar quantity, not a vector quantity. It has a magnitude but no direction associated with it. Pressure acts in all directions at a point inside a gas. At the surface of a gas, the pressure force acts perpendicular to the surface.If the gas as a whole is moving, the measured pressure is different in the direction of the motion. The ordered motion of the gas produces an ordered component of the momentum in the direction of the motion. We associate an additional pressure component, called dynamic pressure, with this fluid momentum. The pressure measured in the direction of the motion is called the total pressure and is equal to the sum of the static and dynamic pressureas described by Bernoulli's equation.Macro Scale Definition of PressureTurning to the larger scale, the pressure is a state variable of a gas, like the temperature and the density. The change in pressure during any process is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. You can explore the effects of pressure on other gas variables at the animated gas lab. Although pressure itself is a scalar, we can define a pressure force to be equal to the pressure (force/area) times the surface area in a direction perpendicular to the surface. The pressure force is a vector quantity.Pressure forces have some unique qualities as compared to gravitational or mechanical forces. In the figure shown above on the right, we have a red gas that is confined in a box. A mechanical force is applied to the top of the box. The pressure force within the box opposes the applied force according to Newton's third law of motion. The scalar pressure equals the external force divided by the area of the top of the box. Inside the gas, the pressure acts in all directions. So the pressure pushes on the bottom of the box and on the sides. This is different from simple solid mechanics. If the red gas were a solid, there would be no forces applied to the sides of the box; the applied force would be simply transmitted to the bottom. But in a gas, because the molecules are free to move about and collide with one another, a force applied in the vertical direction causes forces in the horizontal direction. ------------------------ hhop  Pressure.gif (12.65 kB, 710x534 - viewed 892 times.) --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
 Re: hhop « Reply #101 on: 2015-11-09, 19:27:59 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality Quote from: evolvingape on 2015-11-09, 18:24:54Pressure forces have some unique qualities as compared to gravitational or mechanical forces. In the figure shown above on the right, we have a red gas that is confined in a box. A mechanical force is applied to the top of the box. The pressure force within the box opposes the applied force according to Newton's third law of motion. The scalar pressure equals the external force divided by the area of the top of the box. Inside the gas, the pressure acts in all directions. So the pressure pushes on the bottom of the box and on the sides. This is different from simple solid mechanics. If the red gas were a solid, there would be no forces applied to the sides of the box; the applied force would be simply transmitted to the bottom. But in a gas, because the molecules are free to move about and collide with one another, a force applied in the vertical direction causes forces in the horizontal direction. The upper chamber of hhop gen 3 is defined as a hollow piston reservoir. As such it has rigid walls that are able to withstand internal hydrostatic operating pressure, without elastic deformation. (Pascal's Barrel)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pascal's_barrelIf your piston bulges it will interfere with the housing wall clearance and cause friction drag on the piston. The piston being a solid will have a weight force vector quantity only.The liquid water inside the hollow piston reservoir has both a weight vector and an internal pressure scalar. If the hydrostatic pressure equalisation valve sleeved through the hollow piston is closed, the scalar pressure fields in both chambers are prevented from equalising thus forming two separate fields.The upper chamber has gravitational potential energy and acts as a weight force only, compressing the liquid chamber below it, energising the scalar field of the lower chamber.The piston at bottom of travel has zero gravitational potential energy remaining, but it does have the scalar pressure in the secondary field.The working fluid is pumped vertically and emerges at the turbine exhaust to atmospheric pressure, having done work on the water wheel alternator. It falls under gravity into the hollow piston reservoir and does work on the chamber below.The piston itself can be buoyant, enough to overcome breakout friction of the piston seal, as the upper chamber is defined in the gravitational field only as a vector force. This means that a steadily increasing force (such as water pouring in) can overcome the negative buoyancy force and the piston will become heavy.Opening the equalisation valve will allow hydrostatic equilibrium to occur and the piston will ascend as there is only one field of reference now.. the specific gravity field. --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
 Re: hhop « Reply #102 on: 2015-11-10, 00:18:04 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality hhop gen 4No hho cell, the piston itself is set naturally buoyant, enough force to reliably raise it during the reset cycle.The COP=1 ratio is now set to PMA output vs Power required to operate valve.Gravity is the prime mover in both parts of the cycle, the valve switches between one gravitational frame of reference and another. ------------------------ hhop  hhop gen 4.png (24.19 kB, 1754x1240 - viewed 535 times.) « Last Edit: 2015-11-19, 18:49:52 by evolvingape » --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
 Re: hhop « Reply #103 on: 2015-11-29, 10:57:21 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality hhop gen 2 HybridExploiting the buoyancy force differential between the two fluids, gas and liquid, to operate the valve. ------------------------ hhop  hhop gen 2 Hybrid Buoyancy Spring Governer.png (49.56 kB, 2339x1653 - viewed 552 times.) --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
 Re: hhop « Reply #105 on: 2016-01-07, 15:38:22 » Group: Professor Hero Member Posts: 1872 I thought I might add my twopennyworth to EG's last post.  Have you ever worked on your car out in sunlight with tools laying on the ground and noted that your shiny tools get hot?  You will find that Ni plated tools get much hotter than Cr plated tools.  This is not because they are less shiny and reflect less sunlight.  The temperature reached depends on the ratio of their spectral absorption over the Sun's light spectrum (which is a narrow band centered on 0.9um wavelength) to their spectral emittance over the spectrum of radiated heat at 300K (which is a band centered on 30um wavelength).   Clearly Ni has a different ratio to Cr, yet they both look highly reflective to our eyes.  And the Ni tools get considerably hotter than the black handle of the screwdriver simply because that black has a ratio nearer to that of Cr.  Our eyes cannot assess the IR spectral characteristics.  Something that looks white (which could be taken as a poor emitter) can actually be a good emitter at IR wavelengths. Snow, for example, would look black if viewed with IR eyes under IR light.  Same goes for titanium dioxide, so if you want your tools to stay cool paint them white or black .  My point here is that there are subtle characteristics that can affect how things absorb energy from the environment.Smudge
 Re: hhop « Reply #106 on: 2016-01-09, 20:49:28 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality Quote from: Smudge on 2016-01-07, 15:38:22 My point here is that there are subtle characteristics that can affect how things absorb energy from the environment.SmudgeGood point.. the equivalence principle needs modifying:Equivalence principlehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalence_principleIn the physics of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is actually the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/grav.htmlThe gravity force has the same form as Coulomb's law for the forces between electric charges, i.e., it is an inverse square law force which depends upon the product of the two interacting sources. This led Einstein to start with the electromagnetic force and gravity as the first attempt to demonstrate the unification of the fundamental forces. It turns out that this was the wrong place to start, and that gravity will be the last of the forces to unify with the other three forces. Electroweak unification (unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces) was demonstrated in 1983, a result which could not be anticipated in the time of Einstein's search. It now appears that the common form of the gravity and electromagnetic forces arises from the fact that each of them involves an exchange particle of zero mass, not because of an inherent symmetry which would make them easy to unify. Water - Density and Specific Weight http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/water-density-specific-weight-d_595.htmlPure water has its highest density 1000 kg/m3 (1.940 slugs/ft3) at temperature 4oC (39.2oF). ------------------------ hhop  water_temperature_density.png (39.25 kB, 643x529 - viewed 482 times.) hhop  water_temperature_specific_volume.png (39.81 kB, 643x529 - viewed 512 times.) --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
 Re: hhop « Reply #107 on: 2016-01-09, 21:00:38 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality Richard Feynman explains the feeling of confusion https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lytxafTXg6cFeynman: Take the world from another point of view (1/4) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PsgBtOVzHKI  --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
 Re: hhop « Reply #108 on: 2016-01-17, 17:30:54 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality hhop gen 3 and 4 may be used in space travel to generate electricity and different gas products like oxygen and hydrogen. (Different working fluid means different gas products via electrolysis)By creating a rotational moment in space a specific gravity field can be formed where different states of matter organise themselves depending on their densities.Artificial gravityhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_gravityArtificial gravity / Pseudo-gravity is the theoretical increase or decrease of apparent gravity (g-force) by artificial means, particularly in space, but also on Earth. It can be practically achieved by the use of different forces, particularly the centripetal force and linear acceleration.The creation of artificial gravity is considered desirable for long-term space travel or habitation, for ease of mobility, for in-space fluid management, and to avoid the adverse long-term health effects of weightlessness.A number of methods for generating artificial gravity have been proposed, as well as an even larger number of science fiction approaches using both real and fictitious forces. Practical outer space applications of artificial gravity for humans have not yet been built and flown, principally due to the large size of the spacecraft required to produce centripetal acceleration.Rotationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotating_wheel_space_stationA rotating spacecraft will produce the feeling of gravity on its inside hull. The rotation drives any object inside the spacecraft toward the hull, thereby giving the appearance of a gravitational pull directed outward. Often referred to as a centrifugal force, the "pull" is actually a manifestation of the objects inside the spacecraft attempting to travel in a straight line due to inertia. The spacecraft's hull provides the centripetal force required for the objects to travel in a circle (if they continued in a straight line, they would leave the spacecraft's confines). Thus, the "gravity" felt by the objects is simply the reaction force of the object on the hull reacting to the centripetal force of the hull on the object, in accordance with Newton's Third Law.Rotating wheel space stationA rotating wheel space station is a hypothetical wheel-shaped space station that rotates about its axis, thus creating an environment of artificial gravity. Occupants of the station would experience centripetal acceleration according to the following equation,a = \omega^2 rwhere \omega is the angular velocity of the station, r is its radius, and a is linear acceleration at any point along its perimeter.In principle, the station could be configured to simulate the gravitational acceleration of Earth (9.81 m/s²). ------------------------ hhop  Rotating wheel space station Wernher von Braun 1952 concept.jpg (11.1 kB, 220x153 - viewed 492 times.) --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.
 Re: hhop « Reply #111 on: 2016-01-17, 18:42:58 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality http://www.russianspaceweb.com/los.htmlWay station on the road to the MoonTo establish a permanent foothold on the Moon, earthlings would need more than a single manned spacecraft. As in past conquests of remote and inhospitable lands, it might be necessary to pre-position supplies and accommodations along the way. The most convenient location for a way station on the road to the Moon, would be the lunar orbit. Here, landers returning from the surface of the Moon would link up with transport ships coming from Earth. Crews and cargo could be exchanged and large quantities of propellant could be accumulated for specific “high-power” missions, such as the delivery of heavy lunar base modules on the surface of the Moon. (138)The concept of a lunar orbital station, or LOS, appeared in early American and Soviet studies of lunar exploration. As early as 1959, Wernher von Braun envisioned the refueling of transport ships in the lunar orbit, in order to facilitate the construction of a lunar base within the project Horizon. In 1962, Sergei Korolev, the founder of the Soviet space program, considered the possibility of establishing long-duration "satellite-stations" in lunar orbit with the goal of supporting deep-space expeditions. (137) The idea was further evaluated around 1963 within the L4 project.Still, for most of the 20th century, a lunar orbital station had remained a “luxury” item on the list of priorities of contemporary space programs. It was impossible to justify within the limited scope of lunar exploration at the time. However, the first decade of the 21st century saw a renaissance in lunar exploration, with rocket scientists on both sides of the Atlantic dusting off their ideas for establishing a permanent presence on the surface of the Moon. In the post-Soviet Russia, planners at the country’s leading manned space flight centers – RKK Energia and Khrunichev enterprise – saw a lunar orbital station as an essential element in the Earth-Moon transport chain.Khrunichev’s LOS conceptOn November 14-15, 2007, the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City hosted the 7th scientific conference on manned space flight. Sergei Pugachenko, a representative of KB Salyut, the development arm at Khrunichev enterprise, revealed ambitious long-term plans for exploration of the Moon and Mars.The lunar infrastructure proposed by Khrunichev included two major elements – a base on the surface of the Moon and a lunar orbital station. Pugachenko’s presentation included a slide, which was perhaps the first depiction of a possible configuration of the lunar orbital station, LOS.The spacecraft clearly traced its roots to the generations of Soviet space stations, such as Salyut, Almaz, Mir's core module and the service module of the International Space Station. Not coincidently, all these vehicles were built at Khrunichev. LOS sported six docking ports, high-power antenna for communications, maneuvering and attitude control engines, solar panels and a robotic arm, similar to the one developed by the European Space Agency, ESA, for the Russian segment of the ISS.In an accompanying statement to the media, Pugachenko explained that the lunar orbital station would be used for the transfer and storage of cargo and propellants, as well as serve as temporary or emergency quarters for crews and a platform for scientific studies of the Moon, such as remote-sensing and cartography. LOS could also help relay signals between Earth and the lunar surface.Both the lunar surface base and the lunar orbital station would be delivered into space by a super-heavy version of the Angara rocket with a cargo capacity of 100 tons to the low-Earth orbit. To top it off, Khrunichev drafted a family of giant rockets, with a cargo capacity to low-earth orbit ranging from 45 tons to an incredible 175 tons! Nautilus-Xhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nautilus-XNautilus-X (Non-Atmospheric Universal Transport Intended for Lengthy United States Exploration) is a multi-mission space exploration vehicle concept developed by engineers Mark Holderman and Edward Henderson of the Technology Applications Assessment Team of NASA.The concept was first proposed in January, 2011 for long duration (one to twenty-four months) exo-atmospheric space journeys for a six-person crew. In order to limit the effects of microgravity on human health, the spacecraft would be equipped with a centrifuge.The design was intended to be relatively inexpensive by manned spaceflight standards[2] as it was projected to only cost US$3.7 billion. In addition, it was suggested that it might only need 64 months of work.[3][4] ------------------------ hhop Nautilus X ISS demonstrator.png (36.98 kB, 220x163 - viewed 489 times.) --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.  Re: hhop « Reply #112 on: 2016-01-17, 19:00:07 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality Stanford torushttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanford_torusThe Stanford torus is a proposed design[1] for a space habitat capable of housing 10,000 to 140,000 permanent residents.[2]The Stanford torus was proposed during the 1975 NASA Summer Study, conducted at Stanford University, with the purpose of speculating on designs for future space colonies[3] (Gerard O'Neill later proposed his Island One or Bernal sphere as an alternative to the torus[4]). "Stanford torus" refers only to this particular version of the design, as the concept of a ring-shaped rotating space station was previously proposed by Wernher von Braun[5] and Herman Potočnik.[6]It consists of a torus, or doughnut-shaped ring, that is 1.8 km in diameter (for the proposed 10,000 person habitat described in the 1975 Summer Study) and rotates once per minute to provide between 0.9g and 1.0g of artificial gravity on the inside of the outer ring via centrifugal force.[7]Sunlight is provided to the interior of the torus by a system of mirrors. The ring is connected to a hub via a number of "spokes", which serve as conduits for people and materials travelling to and from the hub. Since the hub is at the rotational axis of the station, it experiences the least artificial gravity and is the easiest location for spacecraft to dock. Zero-gravity industry is performed in a non-rotating module attached to the hub's axis.[8]The interior space of the torus itself is used as living space, and is large enough that a "natural" environment can be simulated; the torus appears similar to a long, narrow, straight glacial valley whose ends curve upward and eventually meet overhead to form a complete circle. The population density is similar to a dense suburb, with part of the ring dedicated to agriculture and part to housing.[9]ConstructionThe torus would require nearly 10 million tons of mass. Construction would use materials extracted from the Moon and sent to space using a mass driver. A mass catcher at L2 would collect the materials, transporting them to L5 where they could be processed in an industrial facility to construct the torus. Only materials that could not be obtained from the Moon would have to be imported from Earth. Asteroid mining was an alternative source of materials.[10] ------------------------ hhop Exterior view of a Stanford torus.jpg (7.22 kB, 220x172 - viewed 497 times.) hhop Interior of a Stanford torus.jpg (24.69 kB, 220x174 - viewed 495 times.) --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.  Re: hhop « Reply #113 on: 2016-01-17, 19:12:22 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality Centrifugehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CentrifugeA centrifuge is a piece of equipment that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis (spins it in a circle), applying a potentially strong force perpendicular to the axis of spin (outward). The centrifuge works using the sedimentation principle, where the centripetal acceleration causes denser substances and particles to move outward in the radial direction. At the same time, objects that are less dense are displaced and move to the center. In a laboratory centrifuge that uses sample tubes, the radial acceleration causes denser particles to settle to the bottom of the tube, while low-density substances rise to the top.[1]There are 3 types of centrifuge designed for different applications. Industrial scale centrifuges are commonly used in manufacturing and waste processing to sediment suspended solids, or to separate immiscible liquids. An example is the cream separator found in dairies. Very high speed centrifuges and ultracentrifuges able to provide very high accelerations can separate fine particles down to the nano-scale, and molecules of different masses.Large centrifuges are used to simulate high gravity or acceleration environments (for example, high-G training for test pilots). Medium-sized centrifuges are used in washing machines and at some swimming pools to wring water out of fabrics.Gas centrifuges are used for isotope separation, such as to enrich nuclear fuel for fissile isotopes.Sedimentationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SedimentationSedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier. This is due to their motion through the fluid in response to the forces acting on them: these forces can be due to gravity, centrifugal acceleration, or electromagnetism. In geology, sedimentation is often used as the opposite of erosion, i.e., the terminal end of sediment transport. In that sense, it includes the termination of transport by saltation or true bedload transport. Settling is the falling of suspended particles through the liquid, whereas sedimentation is the termination of the settling process.Sedimentation may pertain to objects of various sizes, ranging from large rocks in flowing water to suspensions of dust and pollen particles to cellular suspensions to solutions of single molecules such as proteins and peptides. Even small molecules supply a sufficiently strong force to produce significant sedimentation.The term is typically used in geology to describe the deposition of sediment which results in the formation of sedimentary rock, but it is also used in various chemical and environmental fields to describe the motion of often-smaller particles and molecules. This process is also used in the biotech industry to separate cells from the culture media. --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.  Re: hhop « Reply #114 on: 2016-01-17, 19:19:32 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality Newton’s Electric Clockwork Solar SystemPosted on April 21, 2009 by Wal Thornhill http://www.holoscience.com/wp/newtons-electric-clockwork-solar-system/We are told that gravity rules the cosmos. The story of the big bang, the origin of galaxies and stars, and our ultimate fate are founded on this belief. But the March 2009 Astronomy magazine carries the surprising headline, “Is there something we don’t know about gravity?” The question should be, “why do we think that physicists know anything about gravity beyond mathematical descriptions of its observed effects?” All that modern physics has done is to obscure the need for serious investigation of an unsolved problem. Even some effects attributed to the action of gravity, like the bending of light, need not have anything to do with gravity. Indeed, we are so far from understanding gravity that we don’t know the right questions to ask.-However, G is measured at the Earth’s surface and used in this equation for the Sun and every other planet. It is simply assumed that G is universal and has the same value for all celestial bodies.G has the peculiar dimensions of length cubed, divided by mass and by time squared ([L]3/[M][T]2). A. K. T. Assis argues that dimensional constants like G should not appear in the laws of physics. They “must depend on cosmological or microscopic properties of the universe.” [1] Garcia-Berro et al state, “Questioning the constancy of fundamental parameters is essentially trying to understand a more fundamental theory behind.” [2] --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.  Re: hhop « Reply #115 on: 2016-01-17, 20:37:18 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality g-forceg-force (with g from gravitational) is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes weight. Despite the name, it is incorrect to consider g-force a fundamental force, as "g-force" (lower case character) is a type of acceleration that can be measured with an accelerometer. Since g-force accelerations indirectly produce weight, any g-force can be described as a "weight per unit mass" (see the synonym specific weight). When the g-force acceleration is produced by the surface of one object being pushed by the surface of another object, the reaction-force to this push produces an equal and opposite weight for every unit of an object's mass. The types of forces involved are transmitted through objects by interior mechanical stresses. The g-force acceleration (save for certain electromagnetic force influences) is the cause of an object's acceleration in relation to free-fall.[1][2]The g-force acceleration experienced by an object is due to the vector sum of all non-gravitational and non-electromagnetic forces acting on an object's freedom to move. In practice, as noted, these are surface-contact forces between objects. Such forces cause stresses and strains on objects, since they must be transmitted from an object surface. Because of these strains, large g-forces may be destructive.Gravitation acting alone does not produce a g-force, even though g-forces are expressed in multiples of the acceleration of a standard gravity. Thus, the standard gravitational acceleration at the Earth's surface produces g-force only indirectly, as a result of resistance to it by mechanical forces. These mechanical forces actually produce the g-force acceleration on a mass. For example, the 1 g force on an object sitting on the Earth's surface is caused by mechanical force exerted in the upward direction by the ground, keeping the object from going into free-fall. The upward contact-force from the ground ensures that an object at rest on the Earth's surface is accelerating relative to the free-fall condition (Free fall is the path that the object would follow when falling freely toward the Earth's center). Stress inside the object is ensured from the fact that the ground contact forces are transmitted only from the point of contact with the ground.Objects allowed to free-fall in an inertial trajectory under the influence of gravitation-only, feel no g-force acceleration, a condition known as zero-g (which means zero g-force). This is demonstrated by the "zero-g" conditions inside a freely falling elevator falling toward the Earth's center (in vacuum), or (to good approximation) conditions inside a spacecraft in Earth orbit. These are examples of coordinate acceleration (a change in velocity) without a sensation of weight. The experience of no g-force (zero-g), however it is produced, is synonymous with weightlessness.In the absence of gravitational fields, or in directions at right angles to them, proper and coordinate accelerations are the same, and any coordinate acceleration must be produced by a corresponding g-force acceleration. An example here is a rocket in free space, in which simple changes in velocity are produced by the engines, and produce g-forces on the rocket and passengers.Acceleration and forcesThe term g-force is technically incorrect as it is a measure of acceleration, not force. While acceleration is a vector quantity, g-force accelerations ("g-forces" for short) are often expressed as a scalar, with positive g-forces pointing downward (indicating upward acceleration), and negative g-forces pointing upward. Thus, a g-force is a vector acceleration. It is an acceleration that must be produced by a mechanical force, and cannot be produced by simple gravitation. Objects acted upon only by gravitation, experience (or "feel") no g-force, and are weightless.G-forces, when multiplied by a mass upon which they act, are associated with a certain type of mechanical force in the correct sense of the term force, and this force produces compressive stress and tensile stress. Such forces result in the operational sensation of weight, but the equation carries a sign change due to the definition of positive weight in the direction downward, so the direction of weight-force is opposite to the direction of g-force acceleration:Weight = mass ∗ ( - g-force)The reason for the minus sign is that the actual force (i.e., measured weight) on an object produced by a g-force is in the opposite direction to the sign of the g-force, since in physics, weight is not the force that produces the acceleration, but rather the equal-and-opposite reaction force to it. If the direction upward is taken as positive (the normal cartesian convention) then positive g-force (an acceleration vector that points upward) produces a force/weight on any mass, that acts downward (an example is positive-g acceleration of a rocket launch, producing downward weight). In the same way, a negative-g force is an acceleration vector downward (the negative direction on the y axis), and this acceleration downward produces a weight-force in a direction upward (thus pulling a pilot upward out of the seat, and forcing blood toward the head of a normally oriented pilot).If a g-force (acceleration) is vertically upward and is applied by the ground (which is accelerating through space-time) or applied by the floor of an elevator to a standing person, most of the body experiences compressive stress which at any height, if multiplied by the area, is the related mechanical force, which is the product of the g-force and the supported mass (the mass above the level of support, including arms hanging down from above that level). At the same time, the arms themselves experience a tensile stress, which at any height, if multiplied by the area, is again the related mechanical force, which is the product of the g-force and the mass hanging below the point of mechanical support. The mechanical resistive force spreads from points of contact with the floor or supporting structure, and gradually decreases toward zero at the unsupported ends (the top in the case of support from below, such as a seat or the floor, the bottom for a hanging part of the body or object). With compressive force counted as negative tensile force, the rate of change of the tensile force in the direction of the g-force, per unit mass (the change between parts of the object such that the slice of the object between them has unit mass), is equal to the g-force plus the non-gravitational external forces on the slice, if any (counted positive in the direction opposite to the g-force).For a given g-force the stresses are the same, regardless of whether this g-force is caused by mechanical resistance to gravity, or by a coordinate-acceleration (change in velocity) caused by a mechanical force, or by a combination of these. Hence, for people all mechanical forces feels exactly the same whether they cause coordinate acceleration or not. For objects likewise, the question of whether they can withstand the mechanical g-force without damage is the same for any type of g-force. For example, upward acceleration (e.g., increase of speed when going up or decrease of speed when going down) on Earth feels the same as being stationary on a celestial body with a higher surface gravity. Again, one should note that gravitation acting alone does not produce any g-force; g-force is only produced from mechanical pushes and pulls. For a free body (one that is free to move in space) such g-forces only arise as the "inertial" path that is the natural effect of gravitation, or the natural effect of the inertia of mass, is modified. Such modification may only arise from influences other than gravitation. ------------------------ hhop Newton’s Third Law of reciprocal actions.png (10.85 kB, 220x182 - viewed 455 times.) --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.  Re: hhop « Reply #116 on: 2016-01-17, 20:53:58 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality Apparent weighthttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apparent_weight#Comparison_with_g-forceIn physics, apparent weight is a property of objects that corresponds to how heavy an object is. The apparent weight of an object will differ from the weight of an object whenever the force of gravity acting on the object is not balanced by an equal but opposite normal force. By definition, the weight of an object is equal to the magnitude of the force of gravity acting on it. This means that even a "weightless" astronaut in low Earth orbit has almost the same weight as he would have while standing on the ground.An object that rests on the ground is subject to a normal force exerted by the ground. The normal force acts only on the boundary of the object that is in contact with the ground. This force is transferred into the body; the force of gravity on every part of the body is balanced by stress forces acting on that part. A "weightless" astronaut feels weightless due to the absence of these stress forces. By defining the apparent weight of an object in terms of normal forces, one can capture this effect of the stress forces. A common definition is "the force the body exerts on whatever it rests on."[1]The apparent weight can also differ from weight when an object is "partially or completely immersed in a fluid", where there is an "upthrust" from the liquid that is working against the force of gravity.[2] Another example is the weight of an object or person riding in an elevator. When the elevator begins rising, the object begins exerting a force in the downward direction. If a scale was used, it would be seen that the weight of the object is becoming heavier because of the downward force, changing the apparent weight.[3]The role of apparent weight is also important in fluidization, when dealing with a number of particles, as it is the amount of force that the "upward drag force" needs to overcome in order for the particles to rise and for fluidization to occur.[4]Fluidizationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FluidizationFluidization (or fluidisation) is a process similar to liquefaction whereby a granular material is converted from a static solid-like state to a dynamic fluid-like state. This process occurs when a fluid (liquid or gas) is passed up through the granular material.When a gas flow is introduced through the bottom of a bed of solid particles, it will move upwards through the bed via the empty spaces between the particles. At low gas velocities, aerodynamic drag on each particle is also low, and thus the bed remains in a fixed state. Increasing the velocity, the aerodynamic drag forces will begin to counteract the gravitational forces, causing the bed to expand in volume as the particles move away from each other. Further increasing the velocity, it will reach a critical value at which the upward drag forces will exactly equal the downward gravitational forces, causing the particles to become suspended within the fluid. At this critical value, the bed is said to be fluidized and will exhibit fluidic behavior. By further increasing gas velocity, the bulk density of the bed will continue to decrease, and its fluidization becomes more violent, until the particles no longer form a bed and are "conveyed" upwards by the gas flow.When fluidized, a bed of solid particles will behave as a fluid, like a liquid or gas. Like water in a bucket: the bed will conform to the volume of the chamber, its surface remaining perpendicular to gravity; objects with a lower density than the bed density will float on its surface, bobbing up and down if pushed downwards, while objects with a higher density sink to the bottom of the bed. The fluidic behavior allows the particles to be transported like a fluid, channeled through pipes, not requiring mechanical transport (e.g. conveyor belt).A simplified every-day-life example of a gas-solid fluidized bed would be a hot-air popcorn popper. The popcorn kernels, all being fairly uniform in size and shape, are suspended in the hot air rising from the bottom chamber. Because of the intense mixing of the particles, akin to that of a boiling liquid, this allows for a uniform temperature of the kernels throughout the chamber, minimizing the amount of burnt popcorn. After popping, the now larger popcorn particles encounter increased aerodynamic drag which pushes them out of the chamber and into a bowl.The process is also key in the formation of a sand volcano and fluid escape structures in sediments and sedimentary rocks. --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.  Re: hhop « Reply #117 on: 2016-01-17, 20:58:07 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality Mechanically isolated systemhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanically_isolated_systemIn thermodynamics, a mechanically isolated system is a system that is mechanically constraint to disallow deformations, so that it cannot perform any work on its environment. It also does not permit any mass flows in or out of the system. It may however, exchange heat across the system boundary.For a simple system, mechanical isolation is equivalent to a state of constant volume and any process which occurs in such a simple system is said to be isochoric. [1]The opposite of a mechanically isolated system is a mechanically open system,[citation needed] which allows the transfer of mechanical energy. For a simple system, a mechanically open boundary is one that is allowed to move under pressure differences between the two sides of the boundary. At mechanical equilibrium, the pressures on both sides of a mechanically open boundary are equal, but only a mechanically isolating boundary can support pressure differences. --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.  Re: hhop « Reply #118 on: 2016-01-17, 22:20:07 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality Whirlpool in a bottle DIY Science Experiment https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bvibfya_PQ4Creating whirlpool or tornado in a bottle is super easy.. Cyclone Tube Tornado in a Bottle ~ Incredible Sciencehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0LfZFGcGc_IEasy Water Stacking Sugar Density Experiment ~ DIY Incredible Science https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H78Xd3ToxP4 --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.  Re: hhop « Reply #119 on: 2016-01-17, 22:27:49 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality Evidence found that spinning black holes drag spacetimehttp://news.mit.edu/1997/blackholesJust as Einstein's general theory of relativity predictsNovember 6, 1997CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--Avid Star Trek fans--and physicists--have known that spacetime gets distorted near certain galactic objects, but now they have more precise information about the way that distortion works near spinning black holes. Researchers led by an MIT scientist recently obtained the first observational evidence that massive, rotating black holes in our galaxy drag space and time around with them as they gather matter into their spiral, much as a twister picks up objects in its path.This phenomenon, known as frame-dragging, was first predicted in 1918 as a natural consequence of Einstein's general theory of relativity, which describes the effects of gravity on space and time. But it had been unproved by experiments or observation until recently, when Italian researchers suggested the effect might be present near spinning neutron stars. The MIT team then applied a similar idea to several black holes in our galaxy."If our interpretation is correct, it could be said to prove the presence of frame-dragging near spinning black holes," said Dr. Wei Cui, a research scientist at MIT's Center for Space Research who is lead author on a paper to be presented at a meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society on November 6. His collaborators are research scientists Shuang N. Zhang, of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, and Wan Chen, of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.Black holes are exceptionally compact objects with a gravitational pull so strong that no light can escape them. Since black holes cannot be seen directly, their existence can only be deduced from observations of the behavior of sister-stars thought to cohabit with black holes. The gravitational pull of the black hole forces the sister star to revolve around it.The black hole then acquires material from the star by pulling the matter into the orbit of an accretion disk, a ring-like disk of gas that moves around the black hole. As the matter in that disk moves closer and closer to the black hole, the matter heats up and begins to emit X-rays. These X-ray emissions are critical to the measurement of the frame-dragging effect.Dr. Cui's team took the results of their own recent study that measured how fast black holes spin by using the inferred temperature and location of the matter rotating around them. That study, which came out earlier this year, gave the first published measurement of a black hole's spin. Using that measurement and the mass of the black hole, his team then determined how frame-dragging would affect the material in the accretion disk as it orbits the black hole.They showed that the matter's orbit in the accretion disk would wobble, much as a child's top wobbles when it slows down. The frequency at which it would wobble, based on their calculations, turned out to be the same frequency as the actual oscillations in intensity of the x-ray emissions previously measured by other researchers. They theorized that this wobble is evidence of frame-dragging, because the matter's orbit can only wobble if the space and time in which it exists are being dragged.Dr. Cui points out that they cannot claim with absolute certainty that they have proven the presence of frame-dragging. However, he notes that while there are other interpretations that work for two of the five black holes studied, none of them can be satisfactorily applied to all five.Actually, the general theory of relativity predicts that frame-dragging should occur around any spinning body, even the Earth. But the effect would be much more significant around a body with both tremendous mass and small size, like a black hole, and therefore somewhat easier to detect. Even so, its detection took nearly 80 years from the time it was first predicted."Although theorists predicted the frame-dragging effect, they didn't have any observational evidence to prove it before the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer," said Dr. Cui, whose research was funded by NASA.The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, or RXTE, is a 6,700-pound observatory placed into orbit by NASA in December 1995 to gather information on black holes and neutron stars--objects akin to black holes only less massive. It is named after Bruno B. Rossi, an MIT professor who was a pioneer in the field of X-ray astronomy.Two of the instruments on board RXTE were designed by Professor Hale Bradt and colleagues at MIT's Center for Space Research. The first, the All Sky Monitor (ASM), sweeps over 80 percent of the sky every 90 minutes, and monitors the intensities and spectra of the brightest X-ray sources. The second is the Experiment Data System (EDS), a powerful computer that crunches numbers before transmitting data back to Earth.At the meeting in Estes Park, Colo., where Dr. Cui's findings are being presented, the Italian researchers also plan to present their proof of frame-dragging by spinning neutron stars. Most of the data used by both teams was obtained by RXTE.The very existence of black holes is itself the subject of considerable scientific debate. They are thought to be created when a very large star near the end of its life collapses under its own gravitational pull. Such stars are exceptionally dense because they become as small as 60 kilometers--or 40 miles--in diameter, while still retaining a mass many times that of our Sun. Once a star reaches this stage, its gravity is so powerful that absolutely nothing, not even light, can escape, leaving what appears to us as a black hole in space."Of course there are still many unanswered questions about the X-ray emission processes in these black hole systems. But the observations in this case seem to suggest the presence of the frame-dragging effect--that spinning black holes do drag space and time around with them," said Dr. Cui. Something Trekkies have known for years. --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.  Re: hhop « Reply #120 on: 2016-01-17, 22:36:19 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality NASA Announces Results of Epic Space-Time Experiment http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2011/04may_epic/May 4, 2011: Einstein was right again. There is a space-time vortex around Earth, and its shape precisely matches the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity.Researchers confirmed these points at a press conference today at NASA headquarters where they announced the long-awaited results of Gravity Probe B (GP-B)."The space-time around Earth appears to be distorted just as general relativity predicts," says Stanford University physicist Francis Everitt, principal investigator of the Gravity Probe B mission. ------------------------ hhop An artist's concept of Gravity Probe B measuring the curved spacetime around Earth.jpg (184.6 kB, 550x309 - viewed 512 times.) --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.  Re: hhop « Reply #121 on: 2016-01-17, 22:50:41 » Group: Moderator Hero Member Posts: 2502 Everyman decries immorality Spinning Earth twists spacehttp://www.nature.com/news/2004/041018/full/news041018-11.htmlLaser measurements confirm Einstein's general theory of relativity.Mark Peplow One of the last untested predictions of general relativity has been confirmed by the first reasonably accurate measurement of how the rotating Earth warps the fabric of space.The experiment, carried out for virtually no cost with Earth-based laser range-finders, scoops Gravity Probe B, the US$700 million orbiting craft launched in April to test exactly the same effect. However, the Gravity Probe B team has questioned whether the result is really quite as accurate as it seems.The space warp is a consequence of Einstein's general theory of relativity, which describes gravity as a curvature in space produced by objects sitting in it. It also implies that a rotating mass will drag space around it like a spinning top placed in treacle - an effect known as the Lense-Thirring effect, or more commonly as 'frame-dragging'. The effect becomes important in understanding extreme situations like spinning quasars, and the rotation of jets of gas around black holes.The effect was first predicted by Austrian physicists Joseph Lense and Hans Thirring in 1918, but until now scientists haven't had sufficiently accurate instruments to measure its tiny perturbations in the fabric of our Universe.Ignazio Ciufolini at the University of Lecce, Italy and Erricos Pavlis at the University of Maryland in Baltimore charted the path of two NASA satellites, LAGEOS and LAGEOS 2, over 11 years with laser range-finders with the precision of a few millimetres. The effect dragged the satellite's orbits out of position by about 2 metres each year, the researchers report in this week's Nature1.The researchers say that their result is 99% of the value predicted by relativity, with an error of up to 10%. "Their result is the first reasonably accurate measurement of frame-dragging," comments Neil Ashby, a physicist from the University of Colorado, Boulder.DoubtsBut some scientists remain unconvinced that the measurements are as accurate as the Italian researchers claim. "One of the difficulties is extracting the frame-dragging effect from the huge gravitational effect of the Earth," says Clifford Will, a physicist at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, who chairs NASA's Science Advisory Committee for Gravity Probe B.If the Earth were perfectly symmetrical, frame-dragging would be easy to measure. But the lumpy Earth generates an uneven gravity field, Will points out, which moves the satellites about far more than frame-dragging.To tease the two effects apart, Ciufolini and Pavlis used a map of the Earth's gravity field provided by a NASA mission called GRACE, launched in March 2002. This relies on two satellites orbiting Earth about 220 kilometres apart, measuring the tiny changes in that distance as they pass through different parts of the Earth's gravity field. Ciufolini's previous attempt2 at measuring frame-dragging was less than 20% accurate, because it did not have the benefit of the GRACE gravity model."The laser-ranging method can deliver the accuracy, but it is still uncertain if the GRACE gravity models are good enough," says John Ries, a physicist at the University of Texas, Austin. Will adds that the Gravity Probe B team is also sceptical, and thinks that Ciufolini may have drastically underestimated his errors.Scooped?Either way, the Gravity Probe B experiment is expected to deliver a measurement of frame-dragging with 1% accuracy very soon. "I admire the people that have worked for 40 years on this experiment. It's certainly worthwhile," says Ciufolini.Physicists did not expect either of these experiments to overturn relativity, but insist that confirmation was still essential. "There could be an effect," says Will. "It hasn't been measured, so we have to measure it." But he concedes: "It gets tricky when it costs so much."The last major prediction of general relativity requiring confirmation is the existence of gravity waves. The LIGO experiment, run by the California Institute of Technology and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is already searching for these on Earth, while NASA's LISA probes are expected to launch in 2010. ------------------------ hhop  Einstein predicted that the Earth would warp space as it rotates..jpg (8.33 kB, 180x270 - viewed 478 times.) --------------------------- Everyman Standing Order 01: In the Face of Tyranny; Everybody Stands, Nobody Runs.Everyman Standing Order 02: Everyman is Responsible for Energy and Security.Everyman Standing Order 03: Everyman knows Timing is Critical in any Movement.